Slavery in Colombia was abolished long ago. The offspring of these slaves have chosen to remain in municipalities that host depleted gold mines. The reasons for this choice may have little to do with the now defunct slave system.
Most, though not all, slave states of the US are undoubtedly poorer than most free states. Certainly, Jim Crow delayed the upward economical mobility of the offspring of slaves. But can the institution of Jim Crow be blamed on the prior existence of slavery?
Might the institution of slavery and Jim Crow and the marginalised existence of the offspring of Colombian slaves, who are of African origin, be ascribed to the much older phenomenon of racism? To take a example from the cited paper, fewer vaccinations may occur in ex-slave regions because these regions are full of Afro-Colombians.