Estimates of annual growth at 30 June due to natural increase and net overseas migration from 1972 to 2010 are shown in graph 7.4.
In 1972, the excess of births over deaths resulted in a natural increase of 161,800 persons. Declining fertility led to a fall in natural increase to between 110,000 and 130,000 before peaking at 141,600 in 1991. Natural increase again dropped to a low of 114,400 persons in 2003. In recent years, due to an increase in births, there has been a rise in natural increase to 153,300 persons in 2009 and 149,700 in 2010. Since 2006, net overseas migration has contributed more people to the population than natural increase, adding 198,300 people in 2010.
In 2010, the crude death rate was 6.4 deaths per 1,000 population, falling from 8.3 in 1972. The crude birth rate declined from 19.9 births per 1,000 population in 1972 to 13.0 in 2010. The lowest crude birth rate during this period, 12.4 births per 1,000 population, was recorded in 2004. Crude birth and death rates from 1972 to 2010 are shown in graph 7.5.