RE-DEFECTION: MARCH 1961 TO
For the most up-to-date version of this Nodule go to
In reply to OSWALD’S letter dated February 14, 1961, Richard E. Snyder informed OSWALD he would have to personally appear at the American Embassy, Moscow. On March 20, 1961, the American Embassy received another letter from OSWALD, postmarked Minsk, March 5, 1961. Here OSWALD wrote it was inconvenient to visit the American Embassy for an interview and he could not leave Minsk without permission: “I believe there exist in the United States also a law in regards to resident foreigners from Socialist countries, traveling between cities…I do not think it would be appropriate for me to request to leave Minsk in order to visit the American Embassy…I have no intention of abusing my position here, and am sure you would not want me to.” He requested the American Embassy send him a questionnaire in place of having the personal interview. When Snyder replied he assured OSWALD the Soviet Government interposed no objection to American citizens in the Soviet Union visiting the American Embassy. OSWALD’S reference to “a law in regards to resident foreigners from Socialist countries” concerned restrictions put on suspected KGB agents by the United States, not on Russian tourists. Where did OSWALD learn about this law? From the KGB?
February 28, 1961. I recive letter from Embassy. Richard E. Snyder stated
“I could come in for an interview any time I wanted. March 1, 1961 to March 16, 1961. I now live in a state of expectation about going back to the U.S. I confided with Zeger he supports my judgment but warnes me not to tell any Russians about my desire to return. I undestande now why.”
March 17, 1961 – I and Erich went to trade union dance. Boring but at the last hour I am introduced to girl with a French hair-do and red dress with white slippers. I dance with her Than ask to show her home I do, along with 5 other admirares. Her name is Marina. We like each other right away She gives me her phone number and departs home with an not-so-new friend in a taxi, I walk home.”
In a FBI interview during December 1963, Marina Oswald advised that “Yuri Merezhinskiy, a friend of OSWALD’S, had first introduced her to OSWALD at the Palace of Culture in Minsk on March 18, 1961. Marina Oswald further advised that the mother of Yuriy Merezhinskiy had given a speech that same evening…on her impressions of the United States.” The CIA had traces on the Merezhinskiys that indicated they were Soviet intellectuals who had written numerous scientific papers. The Merezhinskiys lived at Leninsky Prospect 12, not far from KGB headquarters. Yuri Merezhinskiy told Norman Mailer that Marina Oswald had to leave Leningrad because she was a prostitute and she came to Minsk where “everybody fucked her.”
“March 18, 1961 to March 31, 1961. We walk. I talk a little about myself, she talks a lot about herself. Her name is Marina N. Prooakoba.”
On March 31, 1961 Edward J. Hickey of the State Department recommended that OSWALD’S passport be returned to him only on a personal basis because of the rumor that an imposter was using OSWALD’S identification. [NARA DOS 179-40007-10386]
MARINA PRUSSAKOVA APRIL 1961
OSWALD: “April 1, 1961 to April 30, 1961. We are going steady and I decide I must have her, she puts me off so on April 15, 1961 I propose, she accepts.”
April 31, 1961. After a 7 day delay at marraige beaure because of my unusual passport they allow us to regista as man & wife two of Marina’s girlfriends act as bridesmaid: We are married at her aunt’s home we have a dinner reception for about 20 friends and neborios who wish us happiness (in spite of my origin and accept) which was in general rather disquiting to my Russian since for. are very rare in the soviet union even tourist. After an evening of eating and drinking in which uncle Woser started a fight and the fuse blow on an overloaded circite we take our leave and walk the 15 minutes to our home. We lived near each other – at midnight we were home.
On April 31, 1961, OSWALD married Marina Prussakova, a 19-year-old Minsk pharmaceutical worker. Born July 17, 1941, Marina Prussakova was the illegitimate daughter of Klavdiya Prussakova, a 23-year-old laboratory worker whose lover was arrested by Stalin and sent to a prison camp from which he never returned (he reportedly belonged to a former Czarist officer group). Marina Oswald told this researcher:
I never knew who my father was. I know that where my mother was, there was a political prisoner, she could have had an affair with the man. But even my relatives wouldn’t tell me. I have no idea if he was a Czarist.
That’s just a speculation of writers.
Klavdiya Prussakova died in 1957, when Marina Prussakova was 16 years old. The stepfather of Marina Prussakova, Alexander Medvedev, refused to fight the Nazi invaders, and was interned in a prison camp. Marina Oswald told this researcher: “For what reason he was there, it was mess, I don’t know.”Marina Prussakova was raised by her grandmother, Tatyana Prussakova, a former Czarist. One of her daughters had made frequent trips to the United States. Marina Prussakova was baptized and was discharged from the Communist youth group, Komsomol, after she announced her intention to go to the United States. She was not a Communist Party member. [Johnson Lee & Marina pp. 13, 156, 18, 21]
THE AFGHAN DIPLOMAT
Marina Prussakova was involved in an incident with a Afghan diplomat, Abdel Julali, before meeting OSWALD. In HSCA testimony, Warren Commission Counsel Norman Redlich noted:
Some incident occurred between Marina Oswald and somebody in Moscow before she met LEE HARVEY OSWALD, which, as I recall, involved a diplomat, but it was purely a personal encounter…this [incident]might cause embarrassment between the United States and that government relating to this personal encounter. But it was purely a private matter and quite unrelated.” [HSCA V12 p137]
Marina Oswald told Norman Mailer that Irina, a neighbor, set her up to be raped by a member of a soccer team. Although she was not raped, she had to visit an institute for venereal and contagious diseases. Irina then set her up to be raped by an Afghan “client.” The FBI released this highly deleted document on May 6, 1964:
“Bureau Informant (Deleted), a most sensitive and reliable source, advised that Irina Alekseyevana Nikhaylovich of 43 Dzershinkiy Street, Apartment 4, Kharkov, USSR (Deleted).” [FBI 105-82555-3578 page 2 and 3 entirely w/h] Marina Oswald told this researcher: “I did not have affair with the Afghan diplomat. In a week I find out who is who. Only one person knew about that. I was raped by this guy.” Counter-Intelligence was aware of Irina Alekseyevana Nikhaylovich. A 1958 HT LINGUAL Intercept Item 58J18AT “This item was written by one Irina Aleksayevna Mikhaylovich of Kharkov, USSR, (deleted) who mentions seeing one Marina. As Marina is known to have an aunt in Kharkov named Poline Mikhaylovich, it is considered possible that Irina Mikhaylovich (deleted) may be related to Marina Prussakova.” [CIA Memo 5.1.64 HT LINGUAL Items Relating to OSWALD case] The CIA reported OSWALD had the name “Polina Mikhaylovich, also spelled Mikaylov, residing at V’ezd Trinklers, House 7, Apartment 5, in Kharkov (Deleted).” [CIA 1593-1121-A]
Marina Oswald’s associate, Ruth Paine, testified that Marina Oswald “spoke of having met some young Cuban students who were traveling in Russia, or studying in Minsk, or both…” Marina Oswald was reportedly a sexually active individual and reportedly told Priscilla Johnson that she slept with her old boyfriend after her marriage to OSWALD. [ Marina & Lee p129]
One unnamed CIA component produced the document,
“Indications of Intelligence Involvement by Marina Oswald.” These indications included:
(1) Mystery of fatherless patronymic. Could be deliberate to obscure a cover-damaging father.
(2) Refusal to identify certain individuals in her story, while identifying and giving information on others. Cover story incomplete or forgotten?
(3) Complete uncheckableness of her story.
This CIA component concluded:
“The great number of discrepancies, unlikeliness, departures from known Soviet practice, omissions, etc. within Marina’s story (as well as between her story and other information) points very strongly to the probability that she at least knew about and played along with KGB interest, if she was not actually recruited.” This was total bullshit, just another attempt to link OSWALD to the KGB in a fashion advantageous to CIA. Marina Oswald told this researcher: Never, ever in my life was I knowingly involved with intelligence. If I was interviewed by some intelligence people, intelligence people in Embassy, I have no idea who they were. If Priscilla Johnson was with the government, I would have no idea. I was not told. I never worked for Soviet or American intelligence. I told Priscilla everything I know or suspect. The conclusions in her book are not mine.
THE REST HOME
After working in a Minsk pharmacy for a year, Marina Prussakova took a month-long vacation at a Leningrad rest home during October 1960. It was at this rest home that Marina Prussakova met Lev Prizentsev. ANGLETON pointed out that Prizentsev lived in the same apartment building as Robert Edward Webster at Kondrat;yevskiy Prospect 7, Apartment. Prizentev lived in apartment #7, Webster lived in apartment #18. [Memo ANGLETON to FBI Dir 5.11.64] Marina Oswald told the FBI she could not recall the name of the rest home. Marina Oswald:
Just because I wrote a number down [Prizentsev], that doesn’t necessarily mean that I called it. The buildings are very big there. I don’t want you to make connections where it’s not. The bottom line is, I swear on my children that I never, ever was with any government. I haven’t been approached. The Russians didn’t want me to come here. My relatives didn’t want me to come here. So I didn’t have their approval. Some people don’t trust me. They think I’m some kind of mole. I had a profession in the Soviet Union giving out prescriptions.
OSWALD talked about rest homes in a 20-page report he wrote on life in the USSR:
“Public care centers for young and old are an established principle in the USSR.
Thousands of rest homes, sanitoriums and hospitals are scattered near the Black and Caspian seas.”
May 1, 1961. May Day 1961 Found us thinking about our future. In spite of fact I married Marina to hurt Ella I found myself in love with Marina.”
May – The trasistion of changing full love from Ella to Marina was very painfull esp. As I saw Ella almost everyday at the factory but as the days and weeks went by I adjusted more and more my wife mentaly. I still hade’nt told my wife of my desire to return to U.S. She is maddly in love with me from the very start. Boat rides on Lake Minsk walks through the parks evening at home or at Aunt Valia’s place mark May.
OSWALD wrote an undated letter to the American Embassy in May 1961:
In regards to your letter of March 24, 1961, I understand the reason for the necessity of a personal interview at the Embassy, however, I wish to make it clear that I am asking not only for the right to return to the United States, but also for full guarantees that I shall not, under any circumstances, be persecuted for any act pertaining to this case.
In 1992 the CIA Historical Review Committee released the CIA’s copy of a State Department document which commented on this letter. The CIA markings: on the right-hand side of the document, the dissemination instructions were handwritten: “| 1AP | B-lylari | 4 distrib | 1-TSD | 1-OCI SR/SS|.” Why did a copy go to the Technical Services Division? “YAAZ 9644 May 26” appeared on the document. This probably referred to D-806, a May 26, 1961, cable from the American Embassy regarding OSWALD’S citizenship and passport. A CIA Record and Routing Sheet was attached to this May 26, 1961, Foreign Service Dispatch signed by Richard E. Snyder and was dated May 26, 1961. The document was sent
1. C/SR/CI/P (Initials illegible)
4. CI/SIG/ (Deleted) Received November 1, 1961 [Written thus] I.XI.61
[Initials] ege [Ann Egerter].
5. RI/AN (RECORDS INTEGRATION /ANALYSIS) Received November 16, 1961 [Initials] MK
6. RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION / MIS [Initials] C
The following comment appeared from Dorothy Lynch the Chief of
/SR/CI/P: “For Your Information. (WP had originally asked me to pull together all references on this man.) Since then it has been determined that Ann Edgerton is interested & either holds the 201-289248 or has it restricted to her.
June 1961. A continuenes of May, except that; we draw closer and closer, and I think very little of Ella now. In the last days of this month I revele my longing to return to America. My wife is slightly startled. But that encourages me to do what I wish to do.”
July 1961 I decided to take my two week vactition and travel to Moscow (without police permission) to the American Embassy to see about getting my U.S. passport back and make arrangements for my wife to enter the U.S. with me.
OSWALD: JULY 1961
On July 3, 1961, the FBI closed the inactive case on OSWALD. On July 3, 1961, FBI S.A. John Fain prepared a report on OSWALD that was rehash of previous reports. The only new information was obtained from Mrs. James E. Taylor, OSWALD’S landlady in Fort Worth, Texas, prior to his having joined the Marines: On June 23, 1961, Dallas Confidential Informants T-3 and T-4 advised that there knowledge of subject is limited to newspaper accounts reporting SAC’s defection to Soviet Russia. Dallas T-3 and T-4 advised that SAC was not a member of the Communist Party at Fort Worth and that they have never heard his name mentioned in connection with Communist Party membership.
A copy of that interview was sent to the CIA on July 13, 1961.
On July 8, 1961, an HT LINGUAL document was generated about OSWALD. The CIA claimed it was “discovered only on review triggered by press publicity following the OSWALD’S return to the U.S. in 1962.” [CIA 1634-1088]
OSWALD VISITS THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MOSCOW
Saturday, July 8, 1961 – I fly by plane to Minsk on a IL-20, 2 hrs 20 m later after taking a tearful and anxious parting from my wife I arrive in Moscow.
Departing by bus from the airfield I arrive in the center of the city. Making my way through heavy traffic I don’t come in sight of the Embassy until 3:00 p.m. in the afternoon. Its Saturday. What if they are closed? Entering I find the offices empty but manage to contact Richard E. Snyder on the phone (since all embassy personal live in the same building) he comes down to greet me shake my hand after interview he advises me to come in first thing Monday.
Richard E. Snyder commented,
I don’t see anything suspicious in the fact that he visited the Embassy on a Saturday one way or the other. I don’t see anything significant. If he visited the Embassy six times and everyone was on a Saturday one might say…I have no idea why he came to the Embassy on Saturdays. OSWALD was not the kind of a guy who thinks in those terms. OSWALD thought the world operated to serve OSWALD. ‘When I come to the Embassy I expect somebody to see me.’ Very arrogant, very manipulative. He did not get into the office. He entered the Embassy through the one public entrance.
That takes you into a little anteroom. That’s as far as you can go. The Marine Guard would be stationed there. I presume the Marine Guard then allowed him to call me on the phone.
OSWALD, however, claimed to have entered the offices, found them empty, and called Richard E. Snyder on one of the office telephones.
OSWALD returned to the American Embassy on Monday July 10, 1962, and spoke with Richard E. Snyder for 10 or 15 minutes. Secretary of State Dean Rusk had requested that OSWALD’S statements be taken under oath, however, they were not. [DOS a-273, 4.13.61] Richard E. Snyder: “I believe that OSWALD demanded as ‘condition’ return to the United States assurance he would not be prosecuted.” [WCE 909] Richard E. Snyder told OSWALD to have his wife visit the American Embassy. OSWALD sent Marina Oswald a letter dated July 10, 1961 in which she was instructed to call either D-2-20-87 or D-2-00-10 upon her arrival in Moscow. The number D-2-20-87 could not be verified as being, or having been, a telephone number of the American Embassy, Moscow. The number was unlisted in the 1960 Moscow Telephone Directory. Richard E. Snyder had no recollection of these telephone numbers.
The next day Richard E. Snyder sent a telex to State Department Headquarters in which he declared that OSWALD had not lost his citizenship, nor had he broken any U.S. laws, and should be expeditiously repatriated with his wife. Richard E. Snyder had reached his decision without meeting Marina Oswald. [?] Richard E. Snyder: “Do you have the telex? This paraphrase does not sound like I would have written it. It was not likely, unless I had some reason at the time to recommend that he be repatriated with his wife as soon as possible and that sort of thing. The only decision involved for me was whether he was a citizen or not. The question of Marina Oswald did not come into my conversation with him at all. It was irrelevant as to my finding whether he expatriated himself. The question whether Marina was eligible to receive a visa was handled after I left Moscow. I had no official position on Marina Oswald. I don’t recall having made any comment about his wife other than that she existed.”
OSWALD informed Richard E. Snyder he never applied for Soviet citizenship. He explained his original application was for permission to remain in the Soviet Union, and for a temporary extension of his tourist visa pending the outcome of his request. He claimed this was the letter he sent to the Supreme Soviet when he first arrived in Moscow, and it was not a request for citizenship. OSWALD added that his contention was supported by the fact that this letter appeared to have been delivered to the OVIR
Central Office, and not to the Supreme Soviet. Richard E. Snyder determined that OSWALD had not legally renounced his citizenship, since he had not filled in the Expatriation Forms and taken the oath. Richard E. Snyder gave OSWALD his passport on July 10, 1961. Richard E. Snyder stated: “The only question involved is, ‘Did he lose his citizenship or didn’t he?’ Nothing else matters. He was never given Soviet citizenship. Webster had been given Soviet citizenship, so he automatically lost his American citizenship. OSWALD was still an American and was entitled to return to his country.”
OSWALD TELLS SNYDER ABOUT RADIO MOSCOW BROADCAST
During the interview, Richard E. Snyder asked OSWALD about his contact with the KGB. OSWALD told him the only time he was ever interviewed by a Russian was in his room at the Hotel Metropole. That interview was conducted by a reporter from Radio Moscow who sought comments from American tourists visiting Moscow, and his comments had not been anti-American.
THE TWO SETS OF NOTES
This story was consistent with one set of notes he made en route to the United States: “I made a recording for radio the Moscow Tourist Radio travel log, in which I spoke about sight-seeing and what I had seen in Moscow tourist circles. I expressed delight in all the interesting places. I mentioned in this respect the University, mesuem of art, Red Sqaure, the Kremlin I remember I closed this two minute recording by hoped our people would live in peace and fr.”
OSWALD, however, also wrote:
“Did you make statements against the U.S. there? yes.
What about that type [tape] recording? I made a recording for Radio Moscow which was broadcast the following Sunday, October 25, 1959.” [WCD 924; 16WH436; WCE 100]
The FBI reported:
Among OSWALD’S personal effects found after the assassination were two sets of questions and answers prepared in OSWALD’S handwriting.
These documents appear to have been prepared by OSWALD in contemplation of press interviews upon his return to the U.S. from Russia.
In these documents OSWALD made reference to a two-minute taped interview in which he participated in Moscow and which was broadcast on a Sunday by Radio Moscow. In the documents OSWALD claimed to have spoken of his experiences in traveling about Moscow visiting cultural establishments and stated that he closed his remarks with a wish for peace between Russia and the U.S.A…
The FBI reported:
Marina stated OSWALD told her during her first visit to Moscow with OSWALD, about his broadcast over Radio Moscow shortly after his arrival in Russia. She said upon the occasion of her visit to Moscow with OSWALD, OSWALD showed to her the name of Leo Setyaev in his address book and said this person was a Radio Moscow broadcaster in Moscow. He attempted to call this person but without success. Marina questioned OSWALD about the radio broadcast he had made and OSWALD explained Leo Setyaev had helped him make some money by assisting in the broadcast. OSWALD said he criticized the United States and praised Russia as a better place to live because he thought it was the thing to do inasmuch as he desired to live in the USSR. Marina believes the occasion of this broadcast is related to the visit of a Moscow radio reporter to the Hotel Metropole to see OSWALD as OSWALD told her that Setyaev and visited him in the Metropole Hotel. [FBI 105-82,555-4771]
The FBI continued:
Lending additional support to the belief that OSWALD did participate in a radio broadcast over Radio Moscow are comments of Marina Oswald during a December 17, 1963 interview. Marina stated that OSWALD appeared on a radio program in Moscow. She said OSWALD did not tell her about which he spoke on the program, but she presumed he denounced the United States and praised Russia, else he would not have been permitted on the program. The Bureau is desirous of determining if OSWALD, in fact, participated in a broadcast on Radio Moscow during his residence in the Soviet Union.
Mendoza, Ms. Ethel
915 Hathaway Rd., No. 306, New Bedford, MA
February 14, 1964
MEMORANDUM: DIRECTOR: FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
SUBJECT: LEE HARVEY OSWALD
1. Subsequent to the preparation of our CSCI-3/779, 817 dated February 4, 1964 subject as above, in response to your communication xxx-10461
dated December 31, 1963 file number (S) 105-82555 additional information relating to the subject has come to our attention. This information was received from your office in your communication DA 59961 dated December 20, 1963, subject Lillie May Rahm. It is repeated below for the convenience of your personnel involved in the OSWALD
2. Concerning the entry on page 23 of OSWALD’s address book: Lev Setyaev – Radio Moscow
A report from your office dated December 20, 1963 subject Lillie May Rahm, contains the following information. Annette (nee Zugoff) aka Annette K. Henkina, born November 18, 1919 at Lake Stevens, Washington is married to a Leo Setyaev who worked for Radio Moscow.
Annette Setyaeva, who appears to be the daughter of Lillie May Rahm, aka Lillie May Teslich, aka Lillie May Zugoff, born November 8, 1902 at Wells Township, Michigan, travelled to the Soviet Union in 1935 and on March 20, 1936 became a citizen of the USSR. At least until July 1962, Annette was reportedly married to Henkin (fnu). For a number of years Annette has worked as an announcer in the American Section of Radio Moscow. Allegely she is the Radio Moscow announcer known as Moscow Molly who broadcasts an English language program, reportedly containing surprisingly factual and intimate details of life at U.S. bases in the Alaskan Command, ostensibly calculated to destroy troop morale at these bases.
3. a. Annette K. Setyaeva presumably together with Leo (Lev) Setyaev was reported to be residing at Kotal’nicheskaya 1/13, Section V, Apt. 79, Moscow, USSR.
b. The 1960 Moscow Telephone Directory lists a K. V. Khenkin, telephone B-74789 at the address Kotal’nicheskaya 1/13. No apartment number is listed. There are no further traces on Setyaev or Henkin (Khenkin). Except for reports of your office, there are no further traces on Rahm or Setyaeva.
Your office will be advised of any further pertinent information.
For The Deputy Director for Plans: JAMES ANGLETON
Distribution Orig. & 1 Addressee 1 – C/CI,
1 – C/CI/SIG,
1- C/SR, 1- C/SR/CI 2 – C/SR/CI/R (hold cy & comeback cy) 1-SR/O/US/dl,
1 – 201248 SR/CI Research (deleted) February 11, 1964. [CIA 235, CIA-555-809]
Lev Setyayev [tel. (095) 422-1976 home (095) 233-633 (work)]
The CIA reported:
This agency has no additional information on the Moscow telephone number V-3-65-88 which OSWALD connected with Lev Setyayev of Radio Moscow. The 1959 Moscow City telephone directory is unavailable, and the 1960 directory does not include any numbers in the V-3-65- series; however it is a plausible Moscow telephone number. A number similar to V 3 65 93 was given by an employee of Radio Moscow to one CIA source as his office number, and to another source as his home number. [NARA 1993.06.18.18:09:23:620000]
The Setyaevs were living under the name of Annette’s first husband, K. V. Khenkin at Kotal’nicheskaya 1/13. Perhaps they moved there from Novo Preschanaya 23/7 Apt. 65, the address OSWALD had for them in his address book in 1959? But I don’t buy ANGELTON’s statement “The 1959 Moscow City telephone directory is unavailable, and the 1960 directory does not include any numbers in the V-3-65- series, however it is a plausible Moscow telephone number.” According to Setyaev he knocked on Oswald’s door and introduced himself. Oswald invited him in and the first thing he said, according to Setyaev, was “I am a communist.” Setyaev felt this was a strange thing for the young American to say upon first meeting somebody. Setyaev reiterated that his Radio Moscow broadcast was intended to be a light tourist chatter type of show and that he specifically avoided political questions. He stated that Oswald had little to say about Moscow’s tourist sites as he had apparently not seen much. He only visited some “friendship society or language institute,” said Setyaev. (In his second interview with me, about ten months later, Setyaev said something different: that Oswald’s comments were “too political” to be of use for his show.) Setyaev insisted that when he returned to the radio station and listened to the tapes, he immediately bulk-erased them, deciding they were worthless for his broadcast. In 1962, Oswald wrote about the interview: “I expressed delight in all the interesting places. I mentioned in this respect the University, museum of art, Red Square, the Kremlin. I remember I closed this two minute recording by saying I hoped our peoples would live in peace and friendship.” [CE 100 CIA 555-809; WR 691; D’s Comments on Marina 12.0.63; FBI 105-82555-4529 Deleted doc. Re: Lillie Mae Rahm] The Setyaevs were close to Joe Adamov. CIA 898-392]
The FBI stated:
“In view of the factors cited herein we believe it is likely that OSWALD did participate in a broadcast over Radio Moscow in the Fall of 1959. If so this event would likely have been recorded in OSWALD’S KGB file which Nosenko claims to have carefully reviewed. Nosenko made no reference to such a broadcast when interviewed by the WFO re OSWALD. The CIA has been requested to develop trace of such broadcast through its coverage of Radio Moscow and interview Nosenko.” The FBI wanted to interview Yuri Nosenko because “Nosenko, if he is bona fide, can shed further light on it. If he denies knowledge of the broadcast and we can establish that OSWALD’S references to it were correct, this will give further insight into Nosenko’s bona fides.” [FBI DL-105-82555-4527] The CIA reported: “Nosenko has been asked if any attempt was made by the Soviets to exploit OSWALD for propaganda purposes, such as Radio Moscow broadcasts, and Nosenko replied that this was not done either in Moscow or Minsk. Nosenko later reviewed this statement and confirmed it.”
THE CIA’S SEARCH FOR THE TAPE
After the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, someone on the Counter-Intelligence Staff made a note to “review available material to identify the two-minute broadcast mentioned by OSWALD.” The CIA never found the tapes of OSWALD’S broadcast over Radio Moscow.
MEMORANDUM FOR: Chief, CI/R & A
SUBJECT: FBID and FDD Coverage of OSWALD before the Assassination
1. Pursuant to your request I checked with FBID and FDD and obtained the following answers:
a. FBID Mr. K. Ball, Jr. As Standard Operating Procedure, FBID would have recorded any mention of an American defector such as OSWALD.
But upon checking their records at and headquarters and in London disclosed no pertinent entries.
b. FDD Mr. E. Duin As a standard operating procedure FDD would not have noted the name of an American defector. They concentrate their efforts toward recording Soviet personalities. A check of the FDD records disclosed no pertinent entries.
2. A recheck of all actual materials i.e. the Soviet radio and press releases for that period could be undertaken, but the task would be Herculean and a change in the statements in a and b above rather doubtful. [CIA 601-816]
The CIA concluded:
“A review of the results of monitoring Soviet foreign broadcasts at the time when an interview with LEE HARVEY OSWALD
had supposedly been taped was conducted with negative results.
Therefore, it is assumed that such a tape, if broadcast at all, was aired over a local USSR facility for internal consumption.
Edgar C. Duin, 89, a former research analyst with the CIA, died of pulmonary fibrosis March 21, 2007. He specialized in the Soviet Union within the CIA’s Foreign Broadcast Information Service and spoke Russian, French, Spanish and Dutch. Tapes of Radio Moscow recorded on this date should have been examined; if OSWALD did not appear, all other Radio Moscow broadcasts between October 16, 1959, and November 16, 1959, should have been checked. The North American Service of Radio Moscow came on the air about 7:00 p.m. E.S.T. on October 25, 1959, broadcasting until about midnight. The programming was repeated approximately every three and one half hours. I possessed a Hallicrafters S-38-E short wave radio in 1959, and was a nightly listener to Radio Moscow. I vaguely remember hearing an interview with a defector from Texas. At the time I thought to myself, “They must be dirt poor in his area of Texas for him to expect a higher standard of living in the USSR.”
OSWALD JULY 1961
July 8, 1961 – Interview July 9, 1961. recive passport. Call Marina to Moscow also. July 14, 1961. I and Marina return to Minsk. July 15, 1961.
Marina at work, is shocked to find out they everyone knows she entered the U.S. embassy. They were called at her place of work from some official in Moscow. The hold a meeting and give her a strong browbeating.
The first of many indocrinations.
July 15, 1961 to August 20, 1961. We have found out which blanks and ceriifikats are necessary to apply for evit visa. They number about 20
papers, birth certificates affidavite photos ect. On August 20, 1961 we give the papers out they say it will be 3 ݣonths before we know wheather they’ll let us go or not. In the meantime Marina has had to stade 4 differant meeting at the place of work held by her boss’s at the direction of
“someone” by phone. The Young Comm. leauge headquarters also called about her and she had to go see them for 1 ݣrs. The purpose (expressed) is to diswade her from going to the U.S.A., net effect: make her more stubborn about wanting to go. Marina is pregnet. We only hope that the visas come through soon.
On July 11, 1961, Boris Klossen of the State Department generated a lengthy memo on OSWALD. Klossen felt that the American Embassy should renew OSWALD’S passport.
Klossen took OSWALD’S word that he did not give any military information to the Soviets
A CIA Routing and Record Sheet dated was July 24, 1961.
RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION / RECORDS INTEGRATION
1. COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE STAFF Received July 24, 1961 (Initials illegible)
2. CI/SIG Received July 25, 1961 (Written 25 VII 61 initials ege – Egerter) 3. CI/OPS (Deleted) Forwarded July 26, 1961 (Initial E) 4. COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE/ICG Received July 27, 1961 (Initial H) 5. SOVIET RUSSIA /6/ (deleted) Received July 28, 1961 Forwarded August 2, 1961 (Initials BS)
SOVIET RUSSIA/CE Forwarded August 3, 1961 (Initials D) 6. SOVIET RUSSIA/RISBIA/ (deleted) Received August 3, 1961 Forward August 3, 1961 (Initials illegible)
7. SOVIET RUSSIA/PA/ (deleted) Forwarded August 8, 1961 (Initials B) 8. SR2 CE Received August 8, 1961 (Initials illegible) Page 8
9. SOVIET RUSSIA 41FE (Initials illegible) Page 4
10. SR6/POS Received August 11, 1961 (Initials BS)
11. SR6/B/ (deleted) Received August 11, 1961 Forwarded August 11, 1961 (Initials BS)
12. SOVIET RUSSIA/RISB/P/WCB. Received August 14, 1961 Forwarded August 14, 1961 (Initials WCB)
15. Mr. Hartman CI/Staff 2CB2
KGB TRANSCRIPTS OF OSWALD
Norman Mailer was able to obtain KGB transcripts of OSWALD beginning mid July 1961, shortly after he appeared at the American Embassy, Moscow. Prior to this all Norman Mailer had were surveillance reports. Maya Gertovich stated a bug was placed in OSWALD’S ceiling in the Spring of 1960. Where were the earlier transcripts? The transcripts did not indicate any involvement of OSWALD in espionage because OSWALD knew he was being recorded by the KGB and because he never took Marina Oswald into his confidence. He only knew her for 90 days before he married her. Their conversations revolved around the laziness of Marina Oswald, her fear of living in America, and her former sexual habits. OSWALD told her: “I was decent and good when I met you, but there was a lot in you that was indecent.” Marina Oswald: “I don’t see it that way, I didn’t even kiss Sasha. No one called me indecent. I didn’t act like the other girls. I didn’t have a mother to put me on the right path. Once a week I was very wicked.”
From KGB transcripts of its tap on OSWALD from July 21, 1961:
OSWALD: Well, why are you crying? (Pause.) I told you it won’t do any good. (Wife cries.)
Marina: You know, I never said that I was a very good person. (Wife cries and OSWALD calms her down, through tears): Why did I get married?
You tricked me.
OSWALD: You shouldn’t cry. I understand, you don’t understand yourself why.
Marina (through tears): My friends don’t recognize me.
OSWALD: Well? I’ve also lost weight, right?
Marina (cries): Why did I get married?
OSWALD: Well, what am I supposed to do? Is it my fault that you have a lot of work? I mean, you don’t ever cook, but other women cook. And I don’t say anything about it. I don’t yell. You never do anything, and you don’t want to do the wash. What do you do? The only thing you ever talk about is how tired you are at work.
Marina: I didn’t get any rest.
OSWALD: Well, what can I do? (Pause.)
Marina: Everything was so good, but lately everything has gotten bad, nothing’s right. You can’t please a man like you. (They are silent.) (Later that night.)
OSWALD: Well, what? This is ridiculous!
Marina: I want to sleep, don’t bother me! … You’re so crude! I’m tired, I swear, I’m tired.
OSWALD: And what did you do that you’re so tired? You didn’t do anything. You didn’t cook anything.
Marina: The cafeterias is good enough for you.
OSWALD: And who’s going to wash the shirts, the socks?
Marina: Everything’s already washed, go and take a look.
On July 27, 1960, the Legal Attaché in Paris sent J. Edgar Hoover this message:
“ReBulet to State Department June 3, 1960. (Deleted) This will be followed and the Bureau will be advised.” [FBI 105-82555-8] On July 28, 1961, a routing slip from the Paris Legal Attaché to the FBI advised that the Paris Legal Attaché had informed one of his sources on OSWALD’S present status. On August 7, 1961, the FBI Legal Attaché in Paris sent a message to J. Edgar Hoover about OSWALD
Re Dallas rep 7/31/61 transmitted by Bu 0-7 7/13/61. The Swiss Federal Police were advised as to the subject’s present status in view of their previous investigation to locate him. [FBI 105-82555 NR 8.8.61]
On August 21, 1961, Marina Oswald requested an exit visa in a one-sentence handwritten request directed to the Chief of the Minsk Militia. The KGB cut off OSWALD’S Red Cross subsidy and alerted local Communist Party members that Marina Oswald was moving to the U.S. On July 28, 1961, Deryabin points out, her work booklet shows that she was transferred (apparently promoted) to assistant druggist at the hospital where she had worked until 1959. This seems very strange, in light of the facts that
1. She had just made her visit to the American Embassy and was being subjected to heckling at her place of work (to the extent, OSWALD said, that she was hospitalized five days for nervous exhaustion).
2. Her plans to leave the USSR, in addition to casting suspicion on her, would remove her from her job shortly. [CIA ATT. 2 to XAAZ-22408]
Marina Oswald denied she had been promoted when interviewed by this researcher.
The KGB treated OSWALD as they would any re-defector so it would not draw attention to its relationship with OSWALD, although the KGB made sure it did not interfere with him. The OSWALDS were among the lucky few in terms of obtaining exit visas for a good reason: OSWALD had cooperated with the Soviets. The State Department reported that from 1954 to December 1963 a total of 724 immigrant visas were issued at the American Embassy in Moscow. Of these 97 were issued in 1962. [State Dept.
Memo Jenkins to Erlich 6.25.64] The CIA reported that from 1959 to 1964 approximately 800 relatives of American citizens received exit visas from the Soviets.
[Memo: Coleman to Slawson re Possible Foreign Conspiracy]
THE FIRST LOOKOUT CARD DISAPPEARS
A State Department document related:
“The passport file contains a record stamp of a ‘PT/RCL (Lookout Files)’ search made on August 2, 1961, which reports ‘No Lookout file record’ located on that date.”
The State Department:
The procedure to have a lookout card removed from the file, is to mark the Refusal Sheet ‘disregard,’ and send the case to the Lookout File Section, with a notation to remove the card. The Refusal Sheet in OSWALD’S passport folder is not marked ‘disregard.’ The reason for this possible failure to take this administrative action is not apparent from the file.
AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1961
August 21, 1961 – September 1, 1961. I make repeated trips to the passport & visa office also to Ministry of For. Affairs in Minsk, also Min. of Internal Affairs, all of which have a say in the granting of a visa. I exrakted promises of quick attention to us.
September 1961 to October 18, 1961. No word from Min. (“They call us”.) Marina leaves Minsk by train on vaction to the city of Khkov in the Urals to vist an aunt for 4 weeks. During this time I am lonely and I and Erich go to the dances and public places for enitanment. I havent done this in quite a few months now. I spend my birthday alone at the opera wacthing my favorite “Queen of Spades.” I am 22 years old.
The INS asked the CIA to furnish it with any derogatory information on OSWALD. A CIA Routing and Record Sheet, dated October 30, 1961, indicated that the document attached to it, which was dated October 13, 1961, was sent:
FROM RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION/ANALYSIS
1. COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE/Staff/SIG Forwarded: November 7, 1961
5. RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION/ANALYSIS Received November 16, 1961 (Initials MK)
7. RIS/MIS (Initials LE)
It contained this comment:
“Retain or Destroy. This document has been reviewed by RID/AN. It has not been integrated into the CS Record System. If further processing is desired, please so indicate and return to RID/AN.”
The document No. XAAZ 9645 appeared. OSWALD was photographed in front of the Palace of Culture in Minsk by two tourists. Monica F. Kramer and Rita Namen took photographs of OSWALD in August 1961. When they returned to the United States, the CIA contacted them on a one-time basis and compiled a report of their experiences entitled:
“00 – Interrogation in Minsk Following Giving Away U.S. News Magazines.”
Rita Namen commented in 1994:
When I returned from the Soviet Union I received a call from the CIA and was asked to see my pictures. A young lady came and looked at them. I had been called into the Inturist Office in Minsk and accused of distributing counter-revolutionary material in the Soviet Union. I had given one Newsweek magazine to this supposed young student, a plant. The CIA would not allow me to write my own statement.
The ladies turned over 160 photographic slides. The HSCA reported:
“CIA records indicate that only five of the 160 slides initially made available were retained. Committee interviews with the two CIA employees who had handled the slides for the Domestic Contacts Division…stated the picture of OSWALD had been retained because it depicted a Soviet Intourist guide; the other employee indicated that the picture had been kept since it showed a crane in the background.” The photographs were filed under “Intelligence Photography.”
A CIA document revealed,
“March 13, CIA Graphics Register Transmittal Sheet TO: Frank Young FROM: Graphics Register / Office of Central Reference SUBJECT: Intelligence Photography. The attached photographs are furnished in response to referenced request unless otherwise noted. Any inquiries concerning this material should be directed to Graphic Register, Office of Central Reference, Headquarters Building HH-12546.” [CIA 8900] On March 20, 1964, ANGLETON drafted CSCI 3/780612, a document about the photograph of OSWALD in Minsk. [CIA 8900; CIA 614-261, 671-286; WCD 871; FBI 105-82555-3211, 105-82555-3406, 62-070060 enc.]
Monica F. Kramer told this interviewer that she had photographed a military parade, but these photographs were not retained.
THE INDICES SEARCH REQUEST
On October 12, 1961, an unnamed CIA component requested a file search of OSWALD and Marina Prussakova. Nothing came up on Marina Prussakova. Nothing appeared on Marina. Three traces appeared on OSWALD
No. 2 INDEX C. L. Oswald (Deleted) Reference Raymond Wright (FBI Report July 8, 1955 page 2).” [A Freedom of Information Act inquiry revealed that this was an “L. Oswald” who had signed a telegram protesting the Sam Darcy prosecution in San Francisco along with Wright].
No. 1 Index O Mrs. (FNU) Oswald. Attached.
An abstract file slip was found:
Mrs. Oswald Reference Index 1940 Information on Nazis See HCUA Index V January 19, 1939. Not available in security. (Illegible Numbers) 1048,1049
This could be an error and refer to Mrs. Oswald Mosley, the wife of a British Nazi but then again it could refer to Marguerite: In January 1965 Mrs. Marguerite Oswald told the FBI “the Jewish people hired JACK RUBY to kill President Kennedy.” [FBI Dallas 1.25.65 NARA ID 1993.06.21.16:24:00:620310; CIA 1249-1010]
The Historic Diary:
November 2, 1961 Marina arrives back, radient, with several jars of preserves for me from her aund I Khkov. November 1961 to December 1961. We are now becoming about the delay. Marina is beginning to waiver about going to the U.S. Probably from the strain and her being pregnate, still we quarrel and so things are not to brightest. With the approch of the hard Russian winter. December 25, 1961 – Xmas day Tuesday. Marina is called to the passport and visa office. She is told we have been granted Soviet exit visa’s. She fills out the completing blank and than comes home with the news. Its great (I think?).
MARINA ISSUED A SOVIET EXIT VISA WITHIN FOUR MONTHS
The Zigers waited years for an exit visa and it had not been granted. Marina Oswald obtained an exit visa in four months; OSWALD’S took five and one-half months. The HSCA studied “Soviet Relationships and Exit Visas” and found: “Only one Soviet exit visa was granted in a shorter period than OSWALD’S. Sloboda’s wife received an exit visa within three months of application…Reasons for OSWALD’S short wait in obtaining an exit visa are unknown.” [HSCA V12 p641] Vladimir Sloboda was a KGBnik, so his wife was given exceptional treatment. Thomas Karamessines stated: “The KGB has the major responsibility for approving or denying requests for emigration or foreign travel. It investigates all applicants and its recommendation is given great weight by the Exit Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – the agency which makes the final decision.” [CIA 828-373] The CIA reported: So far as we are able to determine, there is no Soviet law which would prevent a Soviet citizen married to a foreign national from accompanying his or her spouse from the USSR. This situation is also believed to have existed at the time of OSWALD’S departure from the Soviet Union in 1962.
In practice, however, permission for a Soviet wife to accompany her foreign national husband abroad was rarely given. In almost every case available for our review, the foreign national was obliged to depart the USSR alone and either return to escort his wife out, or arrange for her exit while he was still abroad. In same cases the wife was never granted permission to leave. The majority of cases reviewed involved foreign students, exchange teachers, and other relatively transient persons, and while a number of these cases have certain points in common, they bear little similarity to the OSWALD case; none involved a defector who married prior to repatriating. The time lapse involved in Soviet processing of the OSWALD departure documentation seems to be normal. Marina began assembling the documents necessary to an exit visa in May 1961, and both OSWALDS actually applied on August 20, 1961, according to Marina’s statement and OSWALD’S diary. Marina’s exit visa was issued at the time her new passport was issued, January 11, 1962, although she had been informed by Soviet authorities about January 1, 1962, that the visa would be issued. LEE OSWALD’S exit visa was not issued until May 22, 1962, although he, too, apparently had been told in early January 1962 that the visa would be granted. The time lapse between actual application and notice of approval was over four months. By way of comparison, some Soviet wives have been held in the USSR for years, while in two specific cases involving Swedish national husbands, the Soviet wives were processed out in less than four months.
From Minsk, OSWALD wrote a series of letters to the American Embassy that contained fewer misspellings than many of his previous communications. He complained that Marina Oswald had been mistreated by her co-workers and had been hospitalized for nervous exhaustion. Marina Oswald denied this and said that she went to hospital because of her pregnancy.
Oleg Nechiporenko reported that on December 25, 1961, the KGB discovered OSWALD was assembling two homemade bombs, which he later discarded. [ Passport, p62] Why wasn’t OSWALD arrested? Norman Mailer’s source confirmed this report: Their observer, looking through the peephole in the apartment next door to OSWALD, saw some suspicious activity. Was OSWALD making a bomb?
He seemed to be putting gunpowder and metal fragments into a small box…Stepan would only say that OSWALD’S device turned out to be some kind of toy…OSWALD threw away this toy a day or two later. They had been able to examine it in the apartment house trash bin.
[Norman Mailer, Oswald’s Tale, p252] The CIA:
“The diary records that on Tuesday, December 25, 1961, (actually a Monday) Marina Oswald was summoned to the passport office and told that exit visas for herself and her husband had been granted.
She completed the necessary forms and returned home to her husband with the news.”
The OSWALD/bomb story does not make sense in light of what we know of KGB practices. Why wasn’t OSWALD arrested or at least interrogated?
New Years we spend at the Ziger’s at a dinner party at midnight. Attended by 6 other persons. January 4, 1961 I am called to the passport office since my residenceal passport expires today. Since I now have a United States passport in my posessition I am given a totly new resid. pass.
called “pass. for forin.” and since they have given us perrmission to leave, and know we shall, good to July 5, 1962.
OSWALD wrote his mother on January 2, 1962, that he and Marina Oswald expected to arrive in the United States around March. He asked her to contact the local Red Cross and request that it put his case before the International Rescue Committee. In 1947 OSS founder William Donovan headed the International Rescue Committee. Leo Cherne headed the committee since 1951. OSWALD advised his mother to insist on an $800 gift from the International Rescue Committee. On January 1, 1962, and January 26, 1962, he wrote to the International Rescue Committee and asked for $1000. When the International Rescue Committee denied Marguerite Oswald’s request, the State Department called the International Rescue Committee and asked for assistance. The International Rescue Committee again refused: it would not subsidize the passage of an unrepentant Communist to the United States. [WCE 2266; HUNT Undercover p141; NYT 2.20.76; Marchetti Cult p334]
There was evidence ANGLETON was running at least one agent in the USSR at this time. Paul Garbler, former Moscow Chief of Station, stated, “I agreed with JIM before I left for Moscow that I would service a drop that he was aware of in Moscow. I arrived in Moscow in 1961. I would have gone to the drop in 1962.”
On January 15, 1962, OSWALD received a letter from the American Embassy, Moscow, that indicated there would be a delay in processing the entry visas of the OSWALDS.
The American Embassy suggested he secure an Affidavit of Support for Marina Oswald.
Again OSWALD asked his mother for assistance by mail; Marguerite Oswald obtained an Affidavit of Support from her former employer Byron Philips. A CIA Office of Security Memorandum generated by Ethel Mendoza noted that OSWALD’s address book contained the listing “Mr. Phillipes LI 2-22080” then showed deleted traces. [NARA 1993.07.24.10:48:22:340550] This was Byron Phillips, resident of Wilbarger County, Texas. Marguerite Oswald had mailed Byron Philips’ Affidavit of Support to her son.
Because of deleted traces I mistakenly bugged Byron. Byron Philips commented about these traces in May 1977:
Well, I didn’t know that boy. His mother worked for my mother and daddy for two or three months and that is the only connection I had with him. I never did see him. As far as CIA contact, well, it had to be local over here, I didn’t have any contact with anybody that I didn’t know. There’s a lawyer over here, I’m not sure if he’s FBI-connected or not, he called me and talked to me about him one time. That’s the only one that ever talked to me about him…that’s before it ever happened. A lawyer over here named Curtis Renfro (born April 5, 1905; died September 1984) called me. He just asked me if I knew him…
Curtis Renfro said he knew Byron Philips. As to whether he called Byron Philips in regard to OSWALD before the assassination, he remarked, “I don’t recall a single word about it, I don’t know fellow, there’s so much going though my office since 1961 and 1962 that I can’t remember it all. I’m 75 years old. I don’t have any records on it.” Curtis Renfro was asked if he had ever had any intelligence community contact: “Not that I know anything about, if I had a call in my life from them I didn’t know it.” In 1963 Curtis Renfro gave the FBI the names of people for whom Marguerite Oswald had worked, in Vernon, Texas. Then he stated that he did not know or remember Marguerite Oswald.
[FBI DL-100-10461, DL 89-43 11.29.63 p178] Bet these two dudes had never been suspected of being CIA agents before!
THE UNDESIRABLE DISCHARGE
On September 13, 1960, OSWALD’S Marine discharge was changed from Honorable to Dishonorable. He wrote to the Naval Discharge Review Board about this.
On January 30, 1962, OSWALD sent this letter to the United States Navy:
“In November 1959 an event was well publicated in the Fort Worth newspapers concerning a person who had gone to the Soviet Union to reside for a short period of time, (much in the same way E. Hemingway resided in Paris.) This person in answers to questions put to him by reporters in Moscow criticized certain facets of American life. The story was blown up into another turncoat sensation with the result that the Navy Department gave this person a belated dishonorable discharge, although he had received an honorable discharge after three years of service at El Toro, Marine corps base in California. I have always had the full sanction of the U.S. Embassy, Moscow, USSR, and hence the U.S. Government. In as much as I am returning to the U.S.A. in this year…I shall employ all means to right this gross mistake or injustice to a boni-fied U.S. citizen and ex-service man. The U.S. Government has no charges or complaints against me. I ask you to look into this case and take the necessary steps to repair the damage done to me and my family.”
OSWALD: FEBRUARY 1962
January 15, 1962 to February 15, 1962. Days of cold Russian winter. But we feel fine. Marina is supposed to have baby on March 1, 1962. Feb 15, 1962. Dawn. Marina wakes me up. Its her time. At 9:00 a.m. we arrive at the hospital. I leave her in care of nurses and leave to go to work. 10:00 a.m. Marina has a baby girl. When I vist hospital at 500 after work, I am given news. We both wanted a boy. Marina feels well, baby girl, O.K.
February 23, 1962. Marina leaves hospital I see June for first time.
February 28, 1962. I go to regista (as presqbed by law) the baby. I want her name to be June Marina Oswald. But those beaurecrats say her middle name must be the same as my first. A Russian custom support by a law. I refuse to have her name written as “June Lee”. They promise to call the city ministry (city hall) and find out in this case since I do have a U.S. passport.
February 29, 1962. I am told that nobody knows what to do exactly, but everyone agrees “go ahead and do it.” “PO – Russki”. Name: June Lee.
At the end of February 1962, OSWALD and Marina Oswald received word from the State Department that they could enter the United States and would be advanced the funds necessary for airplane fare. But Marina Oswald had to apply for a visa in a country other than the Soviet Union. The United States Congress had prohibited the State Department from issuing any visas in the Soviet Union unless a prior waiver was obtained from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The Dallas Office of the Immigration and Naturalization Service had refused to waive these restrictions. When the Soviet Desk of the State Department found that Immigration and Naturalization Service would not make an exception for OSWALD, it wired the American Embassy, Moscow, and reported that the State Department was considering waiving sanctions so that Marina Oswald could enter the United States from the Soviet Union. The Soviet Desk of the State Department sent a letter to Immigration and Naturalization Service:
“SOV believes it is in the interest of the U.S. to get LEE HARVEY OSWALD and his family out of the Soviet Union and on their way to this country as soon as possible. An unstable character, whose actions are entirely unpredictable, OSWALD may well refuse to leave the USSR or subsequently attempt to return there if we should make it impossible for him to be accompanied from Moscow by his wife and child.”
When this had no effect, the Soviet Desk of the State Department reminded the Immigration and Naturalization Service in another letter that the Soviet Government
“would be in a position to claim that the United States Government was preventing her from accompanying her husband and child,” if she were not issued a visa by the American Embassy, Moscow.
The Soviets could have used the OSWALD case in its propaganda war against the United States. D.E. Boster and Robert Owen were responsible for these letters. Robert Owen was probably identical with Robert Irving Owen, born February 26, 1921, who served at the U.S. Embassies in Helsinki from 1948 to 1950 and in Moscow from 1950 to 1951. [DOS EX 32 Fi294H; WCE 24A] Neither D.E. Boster nor Robert Owen was listed in Who’s Who in the CIA. D.E. Boster commented, “Naturally, I was never in the CIA.” D.E. Boster also stated:
“There was nothing unusual about this case.
I was not ever aware of any unusual requests regarding it.”
OSWALD MARCH 1961
The last commiques are exchanged between myself and the embassy.
Letters are always arriving from my mother and brother in the U.S. I have still not told Erich who is my oldest existing aquaitance that we are going to the State, he’s O.K. But I am afraid he is too good a young communist leage member so I’ll wait till last min.
March 24, 1962 – Marina quits her job in the formal fashion.
March 25, 1962. I recive a letter from Immigration & Natur. service at San Antonio, Texas, that Marina has had her visa petition to the U.S.
(Approved!!) the last document. Now we only have to wait for the U.S Embassey to recive their copy of the approval so they can officially give the go ahead.
March 27, 1962 – I recive a letter from a Mr. Philles ( a employ. of my mother, pleging to support my wife in case of need.
On March 27, 1962, an Immigration and Naturalization Service official overrode the determination of the Dallas Immigration and Naturalization Service Office and waived sanctions, granting special permission for Marina Oswald to enter the United States without the third country visa application. It would take until May 1962 for the order to go into effect. Meanwhile, the American Embassy, Moscow, sent the Soviet Desk of the State Department a letter that suggested the OSWALDS immediately be sent on to Belgium.
It was at this time that John Noonan, State Department, Office of Security, (who was listed in Who’s Who in the CIA) sent J. Edgar Hoover a memorandum regarding OSWALD:
OSWALDs It has been determined that Oswald, the ex-Marine, is still an American citizen. Both he and his Soviet wife now have exit permits, and the Department has given approval for their travel with their infant child to the USA. There is a problem with his wife, however, in that SOV in the Department is trying to get a waiver of 243 (g) which requires that Oswald’s wife pick up her visa for entry into the USA in Western Europe.
As soon as this question has been settled they will be free to travel.
American Defectors: Status of in the USSR”
A copy of this memorandum was sent to the CIA. John Noonan, born November 25, 1918, became a State Department Special Agent on April 17, 1949. In October 1960 he joined the Intelligence Reporting Bureau as Chief. He was head of the Records Service Bureau by 1962; he became Supervisor of the Personnel Security Specialists of the State Department in 1968. [DOS Ex 35 (294) L; DOS secondary CIA referral #115 prim. ser. 0146; DOS prim. ser. 0148 sec. ser. 117; DOS Bio. Reg. 1955, 1974]
OSWALD: APRIL 1962
On April 26, 1962 a document was generated about OSWALD that was sent to the CIA. The Routing and Record Sheet indicated:
2. CI Staff Received May 2, 1962 (Initials AM)
4. SR/CI Forwarded May 3, 1962
5. CI/SIG (Deleted) Received May 16, 1962 (written 16 V initials ege Egerter)
7. SR6/Bio (Deleted) Received May 17, 1962 Forwarded May 18, 1962
8. SR6 SUP Forwarded May 18, 1962 (Initials LAM)
9. SR6 (Deleted). Forwarded May 18, 1962 (Initials LAM) OSWALD: MAY 1962
On May 4, 1962, the FBI reopened the OSWALD case. FBI S.A. John Fain was again the Case Agent and S.A. Kenneth Howe was now his supervisor. On May 8, 1962, Under-Secretary of State George Ball wired the United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union and informed him that sanctions had been waived in the case of Marina Oswald.
On May 17, 1962, John Noonan of the State Department’s Office of Security sent a report on the status of American defectors in the Soviet Union to the FBI. OSWALD was associated with “Gheesling” in this highly deleted memo. [FBI 105-82555-UNREC 191
6.5.62] On May 24, 1962 the OSWALDS appeared at the American Embassy, Moscow, to have their immigration papers validated.
After leaving the American Embassy, the OSWALDS checked in to the out-of-the-way Hotel Ostankino for a few days, the same hotel where the family of Boris Pasternak resided after his death. The word “Ostankino—(illegible) “B” was scribbled in OSWALD’S address book; next to it were the words, “8 O’Clock” followed by the number “5.”
Clustered around this entry was a telephone number (DD 10206 or 19206). The CIA reported that the “double D does not appear to be a plausible Moscow telephone number, however under the number D-10206 the 1960 Moscow Telephone Directory lists the address: 60 Gorkogo Street, Apartment #2. The directory lists no name with the number. The address appears to be an apartment house in the Northwest part of Moscow. No traces on address. Neither the 1960 nor the 1962 Moscow Telephone Directory list the number D-19206. D19106 – The CIA reported: “Under the number D19106 the 1962 Moscow Telephone Directory lists: the Savelovskiy Vokzal (Railroad Station) Restaurant at Savelovskiy Square which is located in the northwest section of Moscow. Next to this number was the number DD 19107. It belonged to a D. T.
SPRISHEVSKAYA who lived at Gor’kogo 48, in an “a rather large apartment building in Northwest Moscow.”
The CIA had no traces on SPRISHEVSKAYA. ANGLETON reported:
“Marina’s aunt Valentina PRUSAKOVA nee (unknown), was born 23 February, about 1925, and had at least one sister: Dusya LNU, who apparently resided in Moscow as of 1962. Dusya may be identical with D. T. SPRISHEVSKAYA, listed in the 1960 Moscow Telephone Directory at Gor’kogo 48; her phone number, D-19107, was found noted without comment in OSWALD’S address book.”
How he arrived at this conclusion is beyond me! Two days later, on May 26, 1962, the OSWALDS checked out of the Hotel Ostankino and into the Hotel Leningradsky; here they were approached by an American couple who wanted to strike up a conversation.
On September 6, 1962, NH T-1 and NH T-2 furnished the following information:
They stated that during the late part of May 1962, they took a pleasure trip to the Far East including Russia. They stated that one night, on or about May 28, 1962, they had dinner at the Leningradsky Hotel, Moscow, Russia. They stated that shortly after they were seated they were joined at the table by a man and a woman and that the man explained to him in English that this was a Russian custom. The sources stated that they then attempted to engage in casual conversation with the man, but he rebuffed any attempt at friendliness. He advised that because they felt certain from a general appearance that this individual was an American, NH T-2 stated that during the course of conversation that if this person did not want to be known as an American he should ‘hide the label on his jacket.’ The unknown SAC at this point stated to the sources ‘You don’t know, I may be a spy.’ The sources stated that the subject would have no further conversation with them and shortly thereafter left the table with his girlfriend.” [Johnson Lee & Marina p6; FBI NH 100-18158-12.6.63- Needham]
In October 1962 Pavel Golovachev was questioned by the KGB about his attempt to obtain a copy of Doctor Zhivago from OSWALD. [Norman Mailer, Oswald’s Tale, p313]
DR. ALEXIS DAVISON JUNE 1, 1962
On June 1, 1962, Marina Oswald received a medical examination at the American Embassy, Moscow, from Dr. Alexis H. Davison, a United States Air Force Assistant Attache (Medical). Davison was Assistant Medical Attache from May 1961 to May 1963, when he was declared persona non grata, due to his involvement in the Oleg V.
Penkovsky spy case.
Oleg Penkovsky was a Colonel in Soviet Military Intelligence. In May 1963 he confessed to passing 5,000 frames of exposed miniature-camera film to CIA agents. According to The Invisible Government:
“The Russians charged that Penkovsky would hide his information in a match box behind the radiator in the hallway of an apartment house located on Pushkin Street, in Moscow. Oleg Penkovsky would then mark a circle with charcoal on ‘lamppost No. 35’ and telephone Captain Davison. Davison would go to the lamppost, the Russians claimed. If he found the charcoal circle it meant that something was ready to be picked up.”
Dr. Alexis Davison told the HSCA:
Someone whose name he no longer remembers asked him to observe a lamp post on his daily route between his apartment and the U.S. Embassy. If he saw a black chalk mark on the lamp post and/or if he received a phone call I which the caller blew into the receiver three times, he was to notify a person who he no longer remembers. He was told nothing else about the operation. Davison participated in this operation for approximately one year. On just one occasion he observed the mark on the lamppost and his wife received a phone call signal. As instructed he reported these happenings. Since this signaling procedure was used just once, Davison believes that he was merely a backup contact. Moreover, since the two signals were received shortly before the Soviets publicly announced that they had broken the Penkovsky operation, Davison suspects that the Soviets had found out about this particular signaling procedure and had used it themselves in one instance for verification purposes. Davison was declared persona non grata just after his tour of duty in Moscow ended. He left in May 1963. He stated that he participated in no other operations, but that he did perform some desk work and the like for the Air Attache.
In response to questions concerning the OSWALDS Davison stated that he met LEE HARVEY OSWALD just once – in the waiting room of the Embassy’s medical facility. He seems to remember that OSWALD was ‘scruffy looking’ and was wearing a turtle neck sweater. He assumes that he gave his mother’s name and address to with LEE or Marina OSWALD, but he is uncertain. He does seen to recall intelligence debriefings on the Penkovsky Affair. Davison stated that he had received some intelligence training, which he characterized as superficial. This training mainly involved lectures on Soviet life, and instructions on remembering and reporting names and military observations. Later in the interview he stated that his brother worked for Air Force Intelligence.
Mrs. E. Mendoza of the CIA’s Office of Security stated:
“Davison was apparently never used clandestinely by the Agency but the charges against him appear in the Invisible Government in June 1964.”
On May 16, 1966, the CIA created a document that read:
Davison, Alexis Hal – 0-358:70 – Uncle-In-Law. Davison has never been employed or utilized by this Agency in any capacity. Information in his file reflects that he was assigned to the United States Embassy in Moscow in 1963 as the Assistant Air Attache (Medical) and was named by the Soviets as one of a number of U.S. and British Diplomatic personnel allegedly involved in the Penkovsky case. He was subsequently declared persona non grata by the Soviets and returned to the United States on May 6, 1963. [NARA 1993.08.03.16:52:13:370027]
The Rockefeller Commission requested information from the CIA on any relationship between OSWALD and Dr. Alexis Davison. The CIA’s response was summarized in a Memorandum for the Office of the Inspector General:
1. Captain Davison, who was assigned to Moscow as Assistant Air Attache and American Embassy doctor until he was declared persona non grata in May 1963, was co-opted by the CIA Station in Moscow to provide passive communications support for Penkovsky. This support consisted of observing a signal site from his apartment and of standing by to receive a coded telephone signal from Penkovsky. Davison shared these functions with an Agency officer. The signal site and telephone signal were part of an early warning arrangement established with Penkovsky.
2. There is no record of any other operational involvement of Davison with Moscow Station reflected in the indices of the SE USSR Branch or the SE
Division history of the Moscow Station.
3. None of the records consulted indicate any contact whatsoever between Davison and LEE HARVEY OSWALD.
4. Our files do not contain any record of any intelligence activities of Davison aside from the Penkovsky case. It should be noted, however, that at the time of Davison’s assignment to Moscow, the CIA Chief of Station was not charged with the function of coordinating the intelligence activities of the service attaches in Moscow.
5. The above information is set forth without benefit of the official Penkovsky case file, which is the process of being recalled from the Archives. If review of the Penkovsky file suggests elucidation or amplification of above, pertinent information will be forwarded to your office. [CIA 1631-1089-rel. 4.22.82]
Tennent Bagley characterized Dr. Alexis Davison’s involvement in the Oleg Penkovsky case as a one-shot deal. A CIA document indicated that Ray S. Cline contacted Air Force Intelligence in regard to Alexis Davison on May 31, 1963. [NARA 1993:08.03.17:09:45:650027] A CIA transmittal slip dated June 1963 to Chron. SAS.
“Remarks: Note and send file to SRD. New file of Alexis Davison.” [NARA 1993:08.03.17:08:17:210027] Another CIA document stated: Acting Chief, FIOB/Security Research Staff February 1, 1971
Exposure of CIA Personnel #601 818
1. Per instruction of Deputy Chief, Security Research Staff, the following is a summary of information concerning several individuals who have been PNG’d from the USSR. This information was extracted from a FIOB memo dated January 20, 1971.
2. One paragraph in the referenced memo reflects that various news media such as the Sunday Staff, dated May 30, 1965, as well as the wire services publicized the naming of two American diplomats in Moscow as CIA spies by Nedelya, the illustrated weekly supplement of Isvestia.
Nedelya contained an article entitled “Spy Mania and Naked Kings” on American Embassy spy activities. The article concentrated its attack on Mr. Malcomn Toon as the supervisor of several individuals who are known to the PNG’d from the USSR. These individuals are listed as follows: Davison, Alex Hal 358 170.
The name of Dr. Alexis Davison’s mother, Mrs. Hal Natalia Alekseevna Davison, and her address in Atlanta, Georgia, were in OSWALD’S address book under the heading,
“Mother of U.S. Embassy Doctor.” Natalia Davison’s father was a nobleman and Czarist General who joined the White Russian Guards during the Bolshevik revolution in 1917.
After the Bolsheviks seized power, Natalia came to the U. S., but returned to the USSR
in 1924. It was there that she met the father of Alexis Davison, while both were working for the American Red Cross. [A.P. Dispatch 12.16.62] The mother of Alexis Davison, Mrs. Natalia Alekseevna Belimisheva Davison, told the HSCA she had never been contacted or visited by OSWALD in Atlanta and had no interviews or contacts with intelligence people. In an interview with the HSCA, Alexis Davison said: It was his job to perform physical examinations on Soviet citizens traveling to the United States. He recalls that most of these physical examinees were old, but he remembers two young women — one who was a mathematics teacher from Southern Russia and who was married to an American. The latter was terrified of going to the United States. She said she and her husband were going to Texas. Davidson said that if they were in Atlanta they should visit his mother, a native-born Russian. His mother was never visited by either of the OSWALDS. This was not an unusual thing to do since my family had always been very hospitable to Russians who visited Atlanta.
A HSCA review of Dr. Alexis Davison’s CIA and Defense Department files showed them to be consistent with his Committee testimony:
“Accordingly, there was insufficient evidence for concluding that Dr. Alexis Davison was an intelligence contact for OSWALD in Moscow.”
Dr. Alexis Davison was an Air Force physician who was co-opted by the CIA. He had a security file and a cryptonym – Uncle-In-Law. He must have been briefed on OSWALD’S background, yet he still gave him his mother’s address and suggested they visit her in Atlanta. Davison had a strong anti-Communist background. Why did he send a Communist to visit his mother? Sympathy? Mrs. Davison told this researcher
“He very very often, up until now, gets all sorts of lame ducks in my lap and thinks I will be able to help them.”
Could he have felt sorry enough for Marina and her child and overlooked her husband’s alleged affinity for Communism? Unlikely. He did not know whether Marina shared OSWALD’S views. Suspicion? Did Dr. Davison suspect that OSWALD was not a bone fide defector? Had OSWALD said something to make him believe the he (OSWALD) was on a mission? During this time OSWALD was reportedly rude to those he encountered. How did he win Dr. Davison’s trust? There was more to this than simply southern hospitality. Richard E. Snyder returned to the United States in August 1961. He stated that he had let OSWALD return to America:
for humanitarian reasons, in a sense. He was a 20-year-old kid. I knew that if he stayed there he was going to show up sooner or later and want to go home. That was a recognized pattern. He did.”
Richard E. Snyder was asked why the Russians issued Marina Oswald an exit visa. Richard E. Snyder:
“The visit of NIXON to Moscow opening up the American Fair ushered in a period of relaxation in Soviet affairs including finally, the release of a lot of people, wives for the most part of American citizens who had been holed up in the Soviet Union for years. Stalin would never let them go. I wrote a letter to Khrushchev for the Vice President detailing a number of cases and asking Khrushchev to give them consideration on the basis of reuniting their families. They were given a hard time, but they all got out. The Soviets, in general Russians, were very nationalistic and regarded it almost as a treasonable act to want to leave Russia for America, of all places, that sort of thing. They brought all kinds of pressure on the families, they got the constable after the girl, her place of employment got after her, and if she was recalcitrant, they fired her. All kinds of pressures. But if she stood her ground they finally let her go. As far as OSWALD, there was no reason not to let him go. He was not a Soviet citizen. I didn’t expect they would give him any big problem except the normal bureaucratic foot dragging. All of the difficulties getting out involved non-Americans. I don’t see any expediting at all in the part of the Soviets in the case of Marina. It was well within the bounds of my own experience. She left after I left, about a year later. [16WH616; 18WH16; The Penkovsky Papers Avon NY 1966; Johnson Marina & Lee p151, 152; CIA 1634-1088 – CIA res. to Hoch; CIA 1631-1089]
From Moscow, Richard E. Snyder visited Washington, and then in September 1961, he was sent to the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, where he remained until 1965. The CIA reported,
“Extensive research had not revealed why Southern Europe Division would have run a name trace on Richard E. Snyder in September 1963. There are no internal cards on Richard E. Snyder and no leads as to why he would have come to their attention at that time.” [CIA Memo to Office of Leg. Counsel From F.W.M Janney Sub HSCA Req. 6.8.78; CIA Memo. Shepanek to Breckinridge 8.23.78; CIA 04187] The CIA stated: “As of January 1964 the CI Staff was assigned the responsibility for the OSWALD investigation. The Snyder 201 was opened on March 12, 1964, on the basis of a Memo for the Record dated March 12, 1964, from SE Division.”
The CIA also reported:
7. In 1975 a file review was performed in the DDO of all 201’s on U.S. citizens; whereby the 201 would be destroyed unless (deleted) the (deleted) codes applied. This review was usually done by Records Officers. Since this 201 was opened by the CI Staff (and Snyder was never used operationally by the DDO) the (deleted) code was the category deemed appropriate.
8. The 201 file opening sheet has a machine code number for the office that opens the 201 (the action desk). In this case it is Counter-Intelligence I/Research and Analysis. Each office has country codes, which would be used for operational use, and non-country codes, which are used for more administrative purposes (policy, management, admin. info. etc.) The number 737 (number 18 on the opening form) is a “non-country” file of interest to CI/RA. The 201 file was opened in March 1964 on the basis of an SE officer’s Memorandum for the Record which was given the document number XAAZ 16997.
In 1965 Richard E. Snyder became Consul in Charge, U.S. Consulate, Nagoya, Japan, until 1967. In March 1968 Richard E. Snyder came under investigation by
ANGLETON, Newton S. Miler and CI/SIG:
MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD
SUBJECT: Richard E. Snyder
1. On March 5, 1968, Mr. David McCabe Chief/SY/Special Activities Staff advised that Richard E. Snyder is now in Naha Okinawa and that he has not yet been interviewed concerning his Soviet contacts. The interest in interviewing Richard E. Snyder is based on our inquiry concerning the possibility he might have known and have been in contact with a Soviet who visited Japan using the alias Kolasov. McCabe did not have the details, but apparently there is a report which will be forwarded to us as soon as some additional information is received in SY indicating that Richard E. Snyder may have been in contact with Georgiy Petrovich Pokrovsky [201-4480] and McCabe asked if it were possible we had confused the interests in Richard E. Snyder that instead of Kolasov that we were really interested in Pokrovsky. I said I did not know but I would check and advise concerning the interview.
2. In connection with Pokrovskiy McCabe mentioned that he would be obtaining more information for forwarding to us about Peter R. Peterson and his connection and contacts with Pokrovskiy. McCabe said that Peterson, a SY officer, when he reviewed the Snyder reports which mentioned Pokrovskiy made the observation that he, Peterson, had known Pokrovskiy in New Delhi and that he had subsequently met him in Tokyo.
3. McCabe indicated SY was concerned and he noted that in connection with the John Discoe Smith case, he was not now completely satisfied that Peterson may have been providing information sufficient for us to get a complete understanding of his activities in New Deli. McCabe indicated that Peterson is apparently a bit difficult to control; that he is not always as alert and thorough I his interviews as he should be; and specifically that in view of the information noted above, it probably would be best if Peterson did not become involved I any interview of Synder.
N. Scott Miler CI/SIG CY to SB/CI/I who initiated inquiry regarding Kolasov – Snyder because my cross (illegible) & AELADLE [Anatoliy Golitsyn].”
Richard E. Snyder’s name may have surfaced in a CIA investigation of Kolasov. A CIA Name Listing dated June 12, 1968 was withdrawn from the Snyder file because it contained security classified information or otherwise restricted information. [CIA Job No. JFK Box 46 Folder 2] On June 20, 1968, the CIA generated this memo on Richard E. Snyder:
“The Subject person has been identified in the East German list of Who’s Who in CIA. State Department employee in Naha, Okinawa, possible contact and interview stated in a March 8, 1968, Memorandum, C/S4/Special Activities Staff interest.
Thomas L. Cole Chief, Security Records and Communications Division.”
[File No. 0-541981] Who’s Who in the CIA contained this listing for Richard E. Snyder: “Languages: French, German, Japanese, Russian 1940 to 1946, Captain in G-2 (Intelligence), U.S. Army, 1957 – begins work for CIA. OPA: Frankfurt/Main, Munich, Kobe, Moscow, Nagoya (Consul).” [CIA Sec. Rec. & Comm. Chief Thomas L. Cole]
RICHARD E. SNYDER’S 201 FILE WAS RESTRICTED
On October 5, 1970, the CIA checked its records on Richard E. Snyder and found that Mr. Burnes, Office of Personnel, had red-flagged Richard E. Snyder’s file so that anyone making an inquiry about him would be referred to Raymond Rocca’s Deputy, Paul Hartman, in Counter-Intelligence / Research & Analysis: “The 201 file reflects that Subject’s contacts, in university circles, included Zbigniew Brezezinski (201-012574), born circa 1926 in Poland, who is married to the daughter of Edward Benes, famous Czech leader. At Agency request, Subject provided some information and a personal assessment of Brezezinski.” [Memo. C/CI Support 10.5.70 from Jean Evans, CI/SIG cc: DC/CI]
SNYDER’S PERSONNEL FILE WAS RESTRICTED
Jean M. Evans of CI/SIG reported to the Chief, CI Support that Sndyer 201 File was restricted to CI/R&A (Paul Hartman)…The file was restricted because of involvement with LEE HARVEY OSWALD…An article in the February 28, 1964, edition of the Northern Virginia Sun written by Robert S. Allen and Paul Scott [alleged that Snyder was a CIA agent who interviewed OSWALD in Moscow].”
The CIA told the HSCA:
1a. The Office of Personnel file on Richard E. Snyder had been red-flagged [restricted] at the request of the Deputy Director Operations / Counter-Intelligence of the CIA to be sure that all inquiries concerning Richard E. Snyder would be referred to the Office of the Director of Personnel for further check with DDO/CI.
1b. There is no additional information on the file in the Offices of the Director of Personnel on Mr. Snyder. All previous information was incorporated into Mr. Snyder’s Official Personnel File on June 24, 1974.
Since none of the documents bear a marking to indicate they were a “separate” file, there is no way of knowing which documents were incorporated into the Office of Personnel File in 1974.
When the HSCA reviewed Richard E. Snyder’s CIA files it found that…Snyder’s CIA file revealed that, at one time prior to 1974, it had been red-flagged and maintained on a segregated basis. The file contained a routing indicator that stated that the file had been red-flagged because of a ‘Director of the Central Intelligence Agency statement’ and a ‘matter of cover’ concerning Snyder.” The CIA stated that “the CIA Director’s statement presumably refers to comments which former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Richard Helms had made in 1964 concerning the OSWALD case, when Richard Helms was DD/P.”
The Agency was unable to explain specifically why someone considered it necessary to red-flag the Snyder file…the CIA’s failure to explain adequately the red-flagging of Snyder’s file was extremely troubling to the committee.” Richard E. Snyder commented, “That’s something the committee asked me and I said I hadn’t the faintest idea why. I never had run across a reference to ‘red-flagging’ before this.
Another CIA document that might be relevant stated:
“All CI/OA files are restricted to CI/OA. This particular file (deleted) was nothing but pages of names with no identifying data. No one knows what the list was, and it has since been destroyed and all index cards leading to it have been destroyed. The interest (CI/OA) was not in 1956; the name trace was in 1956. The other documents which turned up on the name trace were dated 1949. As of 1956 (when the name check was done) this file was in the Archives.”
[Shepanek to Breckinridge 8.23.78 CIA # 17157]
Who in Counter-Intelligence was interested in anyone who was interested in Richard E. Snyder?
THE MATTER OF COVER
Richard E. Snyder explained that the matter of cover concerned the cover name he used in the CIA. When Richard E. Snyder joined the CIA his Office of Security File indicated that the CIA asked the FBI to conduct an investigation of Snyder who:
“Will be employed under cover designation on ( ). No CIA interest should be indicated during the investigation. Such portion of the completed investigation report as may indicate CIA connection should, under no circumstances, be disclosed to a third party without the prior approval of this Agency. Likewise, administrative detail, in connection with this investigation, should be so handled as to afford maintenance of the necessary cover.” [CIA OS Ermal P. Geiss 7.26.49]
The CIA told the HSCA:
“The Agency was unable to explain the reference to ‘cover,’ because, according to its records, Snyder had never been assigned any cover while employed…The [Snyder] case was of interest to CI Staff because CI Staff was assigned the responsibility for the OSWALD investigation.”
The CIA’s Office of Personnel also did not know what matter of cover DC/CI was referring to in his notation on the Routing and Record Sheet:
There is no record of any association with Snyder since his termination with the Agency in 1950; therefore the ‘question of cover’ statement must refer to something other than the Agency association. Central Cover staff has no record of Snyder at any time; so Snyder did not have cover set up for him, even while employed with the Agency.
The Office of Personnel does not know what ‘matter of cover’ DC/CI was referring to in his notation on the Routing and Record Sheet as there is nothing in Mr. Snyder’s Official Personnel File to indicate his cover status while employed. The Office of Personnel does not what Project 9D-1-SDHOUSE was. However, it is apparent from a review of Mr. Snyder’s personnel actions that he was never assigned to that project. [CIA Memo: Office of Leg. Coun. From: F.W.M. Janney Subject: HSCA Req.6.8.78; NARA 1993.08.05.14:14:30:060028]
SNYDER REJECTED FOR CIA EMPLOYMENT
On October 12, 1970 Richard E. Snyder received a letter rejecting his offer to be of service to the CIA on a part time basis. [signed by Robert S. Wattles] The Director of Security had been apprised of the rejection on October 11, 1970. Richard E. Snyder was asked about ANGLETON.
“Oh yeah, everybody knows JAMES ANGLETON, ha ha.
Just hold on a minute while I get on another phone, I’m not at the most comfortable one.
I never heard of ANGLETON until a couple of years ago, I guess, when The New York Times article came out and that’s when I first heard ANGLETON’S name. I was interested in those things. I don’t know if ANGLETON was in the CIA at this time. I, of course, wasn’t in that CIA branch.” Richard E. Snyder was asked if had any knowledge of ANGLETON investigating him as possible double-agent: “Well, if he did of course, he didn’t tell me about it. He was really getting paranoid in his last years – according to that article on him. R.E.S. as a mole? I’d be fascinated to learn about it. He was the head of CI, wasn’t he?” On May 1, 1971, Richard E. Snyder became a independent contract employee with the Joint Press Reading Service. He remained in that position until July 25, 1975, when he asked that his contract be canceled effective August 10, 1971.
Richard E. Snyder: “I applied as a possible translator of scientific articles from Japanese to English. This is a program which I guess is still on-going. As far as I knew it was run by the Commerce Department. I only did this briefly.”
The CIA reported:
1. On April 15, 1976 the Japanese Communists Party held a press conference in Tokyo and distributed a handout containing Richard E. Snyder’s name as one of the many U.S. Government officials alleged to be affiliated with the CIA. Although the JCP named some bona fide Agency employees many were bona fide State Department employees or employees of other government agencies who had previously been listed in Who’s Who in the CIA as a CIA Agent active in Japan.
2. The purpose of this memorandum is to document the security files of those Agency employees named by JCP as being formerly assigned to the [deleted as of 2010] plus those State Department employees for whom a security file exists. It should be noted that the Directorate of Operations is currently in the process of formally notifying those Agency employees formerly assigned to [deleted as of 2010] of their inclusion in the JCP list.
3. For complete details concerning Japanese Communist Party exposure, the reader is referred to a memo dated May 6, 1976, subject: Exposure of CIA Personnel, which is located in the security file of the same title, #601 818, Volume VIII.
4. Comments: Retired State Department employee who was on USJPRS contract May 31, 1971, through August 1975; former CIA employee October 1949 to September 1950. Listed in Who’s Who in the CIA Michael E. Schneeberger, Security Analysis Group.
THE SECOND LOOKOUT CARD
The State Department reported:
A lookout card for OSWALD should have been prepared in June 1962, when he received a repatriation loan…The purpose of the lookout card would have been to assure OSWALD’S compliance with this commitment.
On receipt of notice of the loan from the Embassy in Moscow, the Department’s procedures provided that Miss Leola B. Burkhead of the Revenues and Receipts Branch of the Office of Finance Clearance Section in the Passport Office of OSWALD’S, date and place of birth. If the Passport Office received only the name and not the date and place of birth of a borrower, it would not have prepared a lookout card under its established procedures because of lack of positive identification. Mr. Richmond C. Rowley was the Chief of the Finance Office and Mr. Alexander W. Maxwell was the Chief of the lookout card section. When he received this notice, Mr. Maxwell should have instructed Miss Nannie W. Burrey to prepare a lookout card on OSWALD…It appears, however, that such a lookout card was not prepared. Normally, an individuals passport file would indicate that such a lookout card was prepared but there is no such indication in OSWALD’S passport file.
OSWALD CROSSES THE IRON CURTAIN: JUNE 2, 1962
In 1977 the HSCA requested permission from the Soviet Embassy to conduct interviews of Soviet citizens reported by OSWALD to have had contact with him during Oswald’s stay in the USSR. This request was refused, as was the Committee’s request for additional Soviet documents concerning OSWALD’S surveillance. The HSCA stated:
“Thus, information that the committee has collected and used concerning OSWALD’S stay in the Soviet Union…is only partially complete.” [HSCA V12 p452]
OSWALD crossed the Iron Curtain at Brest on June 2, 1962. He proceeded to Helmstedt, Germany, a checkpoint between the two Berlins. No one searched OSWALD’S baggage or put an East German exit stamp on his passport. Documents that contained information relating to a “discussion of baggage search practices of a foreign security service at its immigration points” and “the travel of LEE HARVEY OSWALD and his wife Marina from Russia to the U.S.” were denied in their entirety. [CIA 300-698, 353-720]
From Germany, the OSWALDS traveled to Amsterdam, where the State Department supplied them with a small apartment during a brief stay there. On June 4, 1962, the OSWALDS departed from Holland on the S.S. Maasdam. The report the Dutch immigration authorities gave to the CIA Station in Amsterdam on OSWALD
was still withheld. [CIA 395-745]
OSWALD’S HISTORIC DIARY
During his steamship voyage to New York, OSWALD augmented or completed his Historic Diary. The evidence that he wrote it as the events occurred largely rested on the degree of detail in the Historic Diary. If it were based on notes, where were they? It would be inconceivable to imagine OSWALD reconstructing the Diary from memory.
The CIA disagreed:
OSWALD was restless; he was not a very original thinker and was obviously not a person who was used to expressing himself clearly in writing. Yet he sat down at some time and from notes or memory laboriously wrote out the historic diary. Was this his own idea? Or was he doing it at KGB direction in order to establish a legend for his stay in the USSR and the circumstances of his exit? The diary could be a complete cover story for period until his marriage, and a partial cover story from then until departure from USSR…Whether he wrote the diary on his own initiative or not, the pattern of prominent omissions and additions (with regard to the other available accounts of the same period) may indicate deliberate slanting in response to KGB wishes.”
Marina Oswald said she thought LEE completed his diary in Russia. She was of the opinion that he wrote it in Minsk and that no portion was actually written in Moscow.
Sometimes LEE would make entries for two or three days in a row and at other times not at all, depending on his mood. [CIA 280]
THE NOTES ON MAASDAM STATIONARY
While on the Maasdam OSWALD wrote:
I have often wondered why is it that the communist, anarchist, capitalist and even the fasist and anarchist elements in America, allways profess patrotistism toward the land and the people, if not the government; although their ideals movments must surely lead to the bitter destruction of all and everything.
I am quite sure these people must hate not only the government but our the peop culture, traditions, heritage and very people itself, and yet they stand up piously pronounce themselfs patriots, displaying their war medles that they gained in conflicts lang past between themselfs.
I wonder what would happen it somebody was to stand up and say he was utterly opposed not only to the governments, but to the people, too the entire land and complete foundations of this socially.
I have heard and read of the resugent Americanism in the U.S. Not the ultra-right type but rather the polite, seemingly pointless Americanism expressed by such of the American fore group and the freedom foundation.
and yet even in these vieled, formless, patriotic gestures, their is the obvious “axe being ground” by the business with invested intrests of the sponseres of there expensive undertaking.
To where can we I there turn? to factional mutants of both systems, to odd ball (illegible) Hegelian idealists out of touch with reality too religious groups, to revisinist groups as the absurd anarchism. No!
As soon as I became completely disgusted with the USSR Sovit Union and stared negotiations with the U.S. American Embassy in Moscow for my return to the U.S. my “Red Cross” allotment was cut off.
This was not diffical to understand since all correspondece in and out of the Embassy is censored as is commeon knowledge in the Embassy itself.
I have never mentioned the factof these monthly payments to anyone.
I do so in order to state that I shall never sell myself intentionly of unintentionally again to anyone again.
as for the fee of $_________I was supposed to recive for this________I refuse it. I made pretense to except it only because otherwise I would have been considered a crack pot and not allowed to appear to express my views. after all who would refuse money?!?
In the first part of this anti-Communist essay, OSWALD lumped Capitalism, Fascism and Anarchism together with his “beloved” Communism. OSWALD wondered why the Communists didn’t come out and say they were for the destruction of Russian civilization instead of cloaking their hatred for Russia and its peoples and culture in a veil of patriotism? OSWALD compared World War II to a conflict between totalitarian states and not as a fight against Nazi tyranny: “displaying their war medles that they gained in conflicts lang past between themselfs.” What did OSWALD mean when he wrote, in the context of an anti-Communist diatribe that:
“I have heard and read of the resugent Americanism in the U.S. Not the ultra-right type but rather the polite, seemingly pointless Americanism expressed by such of the American fore group and the freedom foundation. and yet even in these vieled, formless, patriotic gestures, their is the obvious “axe being ground” by the business with invested intrests of the sponseres of there expensive undertaking.”
Did OSWALD approve of the ultra-right type of group rather than a respectable group such as the Freedom Foundation? OSWALDthen stated the big business was behind these groups. Big business was behind the Freedom Foundation. What was the America Fore Group? The AMERICA FIRST group?
THE WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE
The Masdam Notes continued:
In the communist experamint serveal factions and unavoidable developments have emerge which Marx and Engles could not possibly have forseen their emerges with increasing clarity two monumetle mistakes which Marx and Engles made…The first mistake is fairly well known even at this stage of communist development the “withering away of the state” as it was called. Marx envisualized that the aboliation of class’es would lead to the gruaual reduction of state apparous. however this is not the case and is better observed than contemplated. the state rather becomes more extensitve in that while the powers of central ministrys or delagated they are not reduceded and the divideving or a organ of state power into smalle units at lower levels so althugh some of the minster have actually disappeared to Moscow they have become more entrenced than ever at lower levels thus in dividing power you multiply units and in everyday life you become more and more depent on these organs of state power. Wherever you turn you meet them and they touch the lives of people more and more, and a new beauracracy, rather than a withering away of the state…”
“…there have already been a few organizations who have declosed that they shall become effective only after conflict between the two world systems leave the country without a defense or foundation of government, organizations such as the minute men for instance, however they are preparing to simply defend the present system and reinstate its influnse after the mutual defeat of both systems meletarily which is more of less taken for granted. These armed groups will represent the remaining hard core of feninatical american capitalist suportors. There will undoutly be similar representation of this kind by communits groups in communist countrys. there will also be many decided religious segments putting forward their own allturnitives and through larger memberships than the minute men ect. there will also be anarchist pacifist and quit probably fasist splinter groups however all these unlike the minute men and communite partesin groups, will be unarmed. The mass of survivors however will not beblong too any of these groups, they will not be fanatical enough to join extremest, and will be too disallusioned to support either the communits of capitalist parties in their respective countries after the atomic catarahf…in this way the minute men and their narrow support of capitalism have been most far-sighted, however they present only a suicide force wheras what is need is a constructive and practical group of persons desiring peace.”
OSWALD’S REPORT ON SOVIET LIFE
OSWALD also assembled a report on Soviet life which contained anti-Communist jargon (“fellow travelers such as Cubans”). The CIA: Innocence indicators which could actually be indications of intelligence involvement: His pro-Soviet, pro-Marxist, etc. views, vocally expressed.
No such person would be expected to be chosen for recruitment by the KGB. This is a very equivocal point. On the other hand, his book manuscript indicates a very anti-Soviet attitude, which could be his true feeling or a deliberate attempt, on KGB order, to disassociate himself with the pro-Soviet aspect of his pro-communist attitude. On the other hand, despite his putting such thoughts down in writing and actually having part of the manuscript typed by a public stenographer, he was in touch with the Soviet Embassy Washington about returning to the USSR as soon as possible with his wife and children…In the text of his proposed book, he turned against the USSR. This could certainly have been one of his own erratic shifts, but he might also have done it on orders from the KGB to disassociate himself from the pro-Soviet course. [Indications of Witting Intelligence Involvement by OSWALD]
OSWALD’S PRESS CONFERENCE
OSWALD wrote a set of questions and answers for a press conference he intended to hold when he returned to the United States.
1. Q. Why did you go to the USSR?
I went as a mark of discuss and protest against American political policies in forenign countrys, my personal sign of discontent and horror at the misguided line of reasoning of the U.S. Government and people.
[He also wrote] I went as a citizen of the U.S. (as a tourist) residing in a foreing country which I have a perfect right to do. I went there to see the land, the people and how their system works.
[OSWALD wrote] “Are you a communits? Yes have basically, allthough I hate the USSR and socialist system I still thank marxism can work under different circumstances.
Q. Have you ever known a communist. not in the U.S.A.
[Then he wrote his alternative option]
are you a communist? Have you ever known a communist?
Of course not. I have never even know a communist, outside of the ones in the USSR but you can’t help that.
What are the othestanding differants between the USSR and the USA?
None, except in the US the standard of living is a little higher, freedoms are about the same, medical aid an educational system in the USSR is better than in the USA.
[When he wrote in his alternative response, the differences were] freedom of speech travel outspoken opposition to unpopular policies freedom to believe in god. newspapers, Thank you sir, you are a real patriot.
What about statements you make to U.P.I. agent Miss Mosby in 1959? I was approached just after I had formally notified the U.S. Embassy in Moscow of my future residence in the USSR by the newspaper agenties in Moscow including U.P.I. API and time inc. who were notified by the Embassy. I did not call them. I answered statements to Miss Mosby of U.P.I. I requested her to let me OK. her story before she released it, which is the polite and usual thing. She sent her version of what I said just after she sent it. I immially called her to complant about this, at which time she apolizied but said her editor and not her had added servel things. She said London was very excited about the story (there is how I deduced that she had already sent it) so there wasn’t much else I could not about it. and I didn’t realize that the story was even more blown out of shape once it got to the U.S.A. I’m afraid the printed story was faricated sensenlionilizism.”
[In the other version he wrote] What about the statements you made to UPI agent Miss Mosby? I was approched by Miss Mosby and other reporters just after I had formally requested the American Embassy to legally liquate my U.S. citizenship, for a story, they were notified by the U.S. Embassy, not by me. I answered questions and made statements to Miss Mosby in regard to my reasons for coming to the USSR, her story was warped by her later, but in barest esscens it is possible to say she had the thruth printed.
[In one version OSWALD wrote] Did you break laws by residing or taking work in the U.S.S.R. I did in that I took an oath of allignce to the USSR.
[In another version he wrote] Under U.S. law a person may loose protection of the U.S. by voting or serving in the armed forces of a foringn state or taking an othe of alligence to that state. I did not of these.
[In one version OSWALD wrote] Isn’t all work in the USSR considered state work? Yes of course and in that respect I also broke US Law in accepting work under a forign state.
[In another version he wrote] No. Technically only plants working directly for the State, usually defense, all other plants are owned by the workers who work in them.
[In one version OSWALD wrote] Why did you remain in the USSR so long if you only wanted a look I resided in the USSR from October 16, 1959 to sprig of 1961 a period of 2 yݣears I did so because I was living quite comfortably. I had plenty of money, an apartment rent-free lotso of girls ect. why should I leave all that?
[In another version he wrote] I resided in the USSR until February 1961 when I wrote the Embassy stating that I would like to go back. (My passport was at the Embassy for safe-keeping) they invited me to Moscow for this purpose however it took me almost ݣ year to get a permit to leave the city of Minsk for Moscow. In this connection I had to use a letter from the head from the head consular, to the Russian authrites in Minsk (the Russians are very beaurocratic and slow about letting foreingrs travel about the country hence the visa) when I did get to Moscow the Embassy immiately gave me back my passport and advised me as to how to get a exit visa from the Russians for myself and my Russian wife, this long and ardous process took months from July 1962 untill—-1962, therefore you see almost one year was spent in trying to leave the country. thats why I was there so long not out of desire!”
These words were attached to the more radical version of OSWALD’S press conference.
1. Statement to reporter
2. 2 letters to Embassys
3. type recording to Radio Moscow.
1. tourist report to her h etc. (Not legible) moscow sights and sounds preliminary to log of events in moscow called “Moscow Tourist Travels”
2. asking for emformation about how to dissolve 1544 At 18 US CODE
OSWALD was unsure whether he would continue to maintain his leftist cover after his return to the United States, so he wrote two sets of questions and answers to a hypothetical press conference. These notes demonstrated his ability to simultaneously espouse two completely different political philosophies. Which was the real OSWALD?
OSWALD the patriot? Or OSWALD the subversive? [WCE 100] The CIA commented:
“The set of questions with double answers may be connected with the preparation of a cover story.”
Russian exile Isaac Don Levine testified to the Warren Commission that Marina Oswald told him that OSWALD had smuggled a manuscript out of the Soviet Union, although this could be the Historic Diary. Marina Oswald told Priscilla Johnson that her husband had some papers taped to his body when he crossed the Iron Curtain.
OSWALD RETURNS TO AMERICA: JUNE 13, 1962
SPAS T. RAIKIN
When OSWALD, Marina, and their baby girl, disembarked in Hoboken, New Jersey, on June 13, 1962, they were met by Spas T. Raikin, an official of the Travelers Aid Society, with strong ties to at least two Nazi anti-communist militant organizations and to the CIA. This was no chance meeting. OSWALD’S address book contained the word SPAS with a line separating it from the rest of the Russian word for “thank-you.” The address book contained the names of at least three more overt Nazis. How Raikin was assigned to OSWALD beats me. My guess is that he volunteered. It was no accident. The initial referral came from Miss Sootin at the Department of Health, Education and Welfare who requested “repatriate, may need assistance with general planning. This is not an official State Dept. referral since very little is known about the situation of how Mr. O got his family from Russia to Rotterdam. He is known to have paid most of his passage to New York and may have funds or definite plans of his own. If he does need help he can be referred to the Department of Welfare under the repatriation program. Try to interview as fully as possible and report to Miss Sootin on the content of the interview.” [WCE 2655] The State Department had to have informed Sootin about the OSWALDs otherwise how would she have known what had transpired in Russia. Spas T. Raikin claimed OSWALD attempted to avoid him on the ship even though he had him paged via the public address system and was reluctant to speak with him or at least pretended to. Spas T. Raikin: “He might have felt I was a government man. There was no CIA point in my connection with OSWALD. It’s just not there.” OSWALD told Raikin that he has been “a member of the Marine Corps and while on duty with the United States Embassy in Moscow and got involved with a Russian girl, whom he married, and renounced his U.S. citizenship.” Spas T. Raikin was contacted in April 1993. He stated: What light could I throw? It’s in the Warren Report. There’s nothing I can add. There are lots of myths, lots of truths.”
He was asked whether his anti-communism had any significance in his being assigned to the OSWALD case.
This is a b.s. business. This has nothing to do with it. I don’t know much about OSWALD. My contact with him lasted for one hour or so, and after that I forgot about him; little did I know about him before. I suppose you could find better authority to testify to this case; the FBI and CIA. They know much more than I do. My job was a low-paying job. Just meeting people. I met thousands of people in my six years. You meet them if somebody is confused, doesn’t have money, doesn’t have where to go. It was a social-work type of a thing. My function was to meet them at the ship…I was Russian-speaking. I handled all kinds of people. In this case I was Russian-speaking; that is why they assigned this case to me.
In answer to a question regarding whether his contact with Russian émigrés inspired interest on the part of the CIA Spas T. Raikin responded:
Never. I have never had contact with the CIA. They are an unusual kind of people. I have never been on friendly terms with them. I am probably on their blacklist. They think that I’m too independent and have my own opinions. I suspect this because I’ve been publishing exile magazines…
It was pointed out to Spas T. Raikin that the CIA had subsidized exile publications:
Nobody subsidized our [Blugarian National Front] magazine. It was critical of policies. They were messing up things because they were infiltrated by communist agents. Kim Philby. They would plan dropping some people in Bulgaria and people from inside would inform the Bulgarian police of the mission…They were interfering in our exile Bulgarian affairs. Besides, I was not associated with these groups for long; I dropped my association in 1963. I left them because they were too much preoccupied with Russia.
They were identifying all Russians with communism. I would not go along with that. They did not make distinctions between Russians and Communists. [ Free China and Asia 8.59; Ukrainian Bulletin 5.60 as cited by Scott; Mader CIA 500; CIA 1294-481]
RAIKIN’S SECURITY FILE
As a result of the 1992 JFK Documents Act, Spas T. Raikin’s CIA Office of Security File was declassified.
November 20, 1957
SUBJECT: RAIKIN, Spas T.
RI document 12-7-10-575, is an intelligence report on an airfield in Bulgaria, the source of which was Spas T. Raikin, Zdravo Kostadinov Damyanov and Stefen Petrov Peletekov, three Trudovaks who, on May 6, 1951, deserted their unit and made their way to Plovdiv and then to Greece.
The reason for their desertion was to join an alleged illegal group working in the mountains south of Plovdiv. Unable to make contact with the group, they wandered around the mountains obtaining provisions from relatives and friends. Unable to hold out any longer, they entered Greece on June 19, 1951.
Through interrogation it was learned that Spas T. Raikin was born October 26, 1922 in Zelenikovo. He is single and has two brothers, Petur and Stoyu, who are farmers in Zelenikovo. His father, Todor Petkov Raikin, is living and is also a farmer. Subject finished Theological Seminary in Plovdiv and the Theological Faculty in Sophia. He then taught for one year on the Sofia Faculty. On April 5, 1950, he was called up for military service and assigned to Bezmer airfield until December 22, 1950, when his unit was transferred to Balcchik airfield.
Subject’s desire to desert was to join the fight against communism in the name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. When he found it was impossible to do so inside Bulgaria, he decided to escape to Greece and join such a church group there, if such existed. If none existed, he decided to form a militant illegal church group to fight communism inside Bulgaria.
RI document 33-2-0-56 is a dispatch from Chief of Station [15-16] dated August 3, 1951, which encloses a report from source. The report states that (Deleted) has questioned three Bulgarian refugees who where brought from Salonika on July 19, 1951. They are Spas Todorov Raikin, Straiko Damlanov and Stefan Petrov Peltekov. They will be housed at Lavrion.
RI document 12-7-5-147 is a dispatch from Chief of Station [15-16] dated August 6, 1951 enclosing an essay by the Subject o the Trudovak Service Bulgaria. The Trudovak Service is a military organization formed to procure manpower for construction centers. The covering dispatch states that it was reported that Subject was one of three Bulgarians were were brought down from Athens from Salonika on July 19 on the request of (delete)
RI document # 201-129455 (DFB-73956) is an FBI report dated November21, 1956 at Chicago entitled “Vladimir Tyekoff Metchkahski; Internal Security-BU. The report was forwarded to CIA on December 3, 1956. Metchkahski is identified as a Bulgarian political exile who became disgruntled in the US and sought to return to Turkey. A Mr. Rakin (marginal note spells name Spas Raikin) was sent to Chicago by the World Council of Churches in New York to assist Metchkahski.
RI document 12-7-6-27 (SODB-42254) dated September 12, 1951, is a intelligence report concerning the Bulgarian Orthodox Church prepared from information furnished by Subject who considers himself an ordained priest in the Bulgarian Church. In preparing the information Subject used the nom de plume Prezviter Kosma. The field station comments that Subject was brought to Athens from Salonika on July 19, 1951 to work for (Deleted). [CIA document 11.20.57 signed by Joseph A. H. Special Agent Headquarters Field Office]
RI document 201-91430 (DFB-81628) is an FBI report dated April 10, 1957 at New York entitled “Ilia Vaugelof Georgief Ourdof; Internal Security-BU.” The report was sent to the CIA on April 18, 1957.
References to Subject in the report stems from his position as Secretary of the Bulgarian Escapee Program of the Church World Service, 215 Fourth Avenue, New York City. His only connection with OURDOF was in an official capacity. Joseph A. H. Headquarters Field Office.
Spas T. Raikin was employed by the CIA in 1957 when he worked for its Joint Press Reading Service in New York City. [Transmittal Of Investigative Report 11.29.57 From Chief Security Support Division to Chief, Personnel Security Division; ltr. from W.M.
Knott to Chief, Foreign Documents Division 12.13.57; William P. Curtin, Headquarters Field Office 11.25.57 to Chief, Investigative Division; CIA Biographical Questionnaire]
When the CIA ran traces on Raikin’s references it found that Subject’s CHR, Jan S.F. Van Hoogstraten, file #AI-3583, was the subject of an interrogation by OO/C Division.Van Hoogstraten is a representative of the Church World Services. Information recovered from a source reflected that Van Hoogstraten made indiscreet statements relative to refugee work. For further info concerning Van Hoogstraten see SRS File 2861, memo dated October 24, 1956. SRS June 5, 1957. (Card info –
Van Hoogstraten was connected with Roland Elliot, who had Communist associations.
[CIA Name Check Analysis 8.21.57] In 1968 Van Hoogstraten was Church World Service director of Africa. On January 10, 1967 Spas T. Raikin filed out a form titled:
“Background Information For Personal Service Contract.” Raikin named John Broderick, FBI, 201 E 69th Street, as one of his references. When the CIA ran traces on Raikin it found a reference that connected him with Fulton Lewis Jr. CR R162588-A.
NOTIFICATION OF SECURITY ACTION
1. This is to inform you that there is no security objection to use of Subject: At the headquarters building
At building #213 (Naval Weapons Plant)
As a guard at
As an employee of GSA in Agency buildings
As a GSI employee in the headquarters building
As C. And P. Tel. Co. employee in agency buildings
2. As part of the processing in this case
A polygraph interview is not required.
3. THIS IS NOT A CLEARANCE FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED
4. PLEASE ADVISE THIS OFFICE WHEN SUBJECT’S SERVICES ARE
NO LONGER UTILIZED. Steven L. Kuhn. [Raikin Security File CIA Job No.80T01357A Box 45 Folder 9]
NIXON CONNECTION: COMMITTEE FOR FAIRNESS TO THE PRESIDENCY
In 1973 Spas T. Raikin was a member of the National Citizen’s Committee for Fairness to the Presidency (NIXON). Members of this committee included Rabbi Korff, W.
Clement Stone and Ernest Van Den Haag. W. Clement Stone was founder of Combined American Insurance Company and a major NIXON contributor. Ernest Van Den Haag who was a lawyer, economist and psychoanalyst, who worked for William Buckley at the National Review in 1956. Van Den Haag, a racist, was a supporter of William Shockley.
Van Den Haag was connected to neo-Nazi Willis Carto through Roger Pearson. None-the-less Van Den Haag was listed as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations in 1992.
RAIKIN WAS THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE AMERICAN FRIENDS OF ANTI-BOLSHEVIK NATIONS.
The ABN’s founder and leader was Jaroslaw Stetzko, who in 1941 had announced plans to unite with Hitler to “create a New Order in Europe and throughout the world.”
RAIKIN WAS A MEMBER OF THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL FRONT
The Bulgarian National Front was part of the Anti-Bolshevik Nations group. Laszlo Pasztor, the founding chair and key figure in the Republican Heritage Group (the Republican Party) helped the Bulgarian National Front, headed by his friend, Ivan Docheff. As early as 1971 the GOP was warned that the Bulgarian National Front was a Nazi group. A Jack Anderson column quoted another Bulgarian-American organization, the conservative Bulgarian National Committee, which labeled Docheff’s Front as
“fascist.” But the GOP took no action. [Jack Anderson, Washington Post 11.10.71]
Professor Spas T. Raiken was a Front member. He said it grew out of a Bulgarian organization that in the 1930’s and 1940’s was “pro-Nazi and pro-fascist.” Raiken was also a Jew-hater and wrote this in a letter to the New York Times: By disengaging from Palestinian affairs, King Hussein has created, paradoxically, the much maligned Palestinian state territorially envisioned by the PLO, but politically under Israeli rule. The Israelis – not the Arabs –
are the masters in this state, as the PLO. had envisioned. This new Palestinian state is a version of South Africa, with its repugnant institution of apartheid and its blatant racism. King Hussein, having set a trap for the PLO, also transformed Israel into a racist state. This is the real challenge for Israel and the United States.
Spas T. Raikin was re-contacted in September 1993 and informed that the CIA had released his Office of Security file.
He commented, They did? What does it say there? Who is this employee, me? That’s funny. Well, look, if you have the file why don’t you send it to me. I was a professor all this time. The Joint Press Reading Service – I was translating something of no consequence. Some Agency from New York asked me to translate some work, but I found this whole thing very serious and very cheaply paid and I just dropped it…I suppose the Joint Press Reading Service was part of the CIA, yes. But the agency I worked for had an innocent name. I had some papers about this, but I threw them out. The CIA tried to recruit me right after I left Bulgaria. I told them I wasn’t interested and I was going ahead with my studies. I did not apply for CIA employment in 1967. I was well into my profession by then. I might have become interested in doing some translation work.
It was all done by mail.
I never met anyone at this time. I have never been in touch with them. No direct contact except when I left Bulgaria. You are making too much out of this. I think Case Closed summed it up well.
Spas T. Raikin was asked why the CIA hired him, if he was on its blacklist: I had been very critical about CIA intervention in Bulgarian exile affairs.
Maybe the CIA thought my criticism was inconsequential. In our critical observations we avoided using titles and names and agencies. We used a coded language. We wouldn’t directly attack them. I don’t remember directly challenging them. I’m not changing my story. Mrs. Edna Norman gave me the OSWALD assignment arbitrarily.
Are you trying to build-up a case against the CIA?
Spas T. Raikin was mailed a copy of his Office of Security File. He reacted: “It’s so silly and stupid I didn’t find anything of substance there. A number of things were wrong. I was a Professor in 1967. I was building a house that year. I took my job here which I liked, and I was not looking for a new job anyway. I have applied to the CIA for my file.”
In 1994 the CIA released Spas T. Raikin’s application for CIA employment bearing his signature. [CIA Background Information for Personal Service Contract 1.10.67] It was mailed to him but refused. Raikin was a product of the Cold War: Prof. Spas T. Raikin was born in the village of Zelenikovo, district of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. After graduating from the Plovdiv Theological Seminary (1945) and the School of Theology at the University of Sofia (1949), he was drafted to serve his military service in a slave-labor type of unit from where he defected on May 6, l951. After forty-four days foray in the Rodopi Mountain with an armed resistance group formed by him and his fellow defectors, he crossed the border into Greece. These events are the subject of this second volume of his reminiscences (The first volume is its Bulgarian version) published under the title “A Political Journey Against the Winds of the XX Century.”
In exile he studied at the Universities of Athens, Geneva, Basel, and King`s College in England, and after migrating to the U.S. – at Columbia University where he received a M.A. degree in Political Science and History (1959). Before retiring in 1991, he taught History of Civilization, Modern European History and a number of related subjects at the Rio Grande College in Ohio, the State University of New York at Potsdam and East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania. In exile he joined numerous organizations opposing communism and was the editor of several of their periodicals and publications.
Unless there was an intelligence angle Raikin was overqualified for this Travelers Aid job. OSWALD was told that someone named Spas would meet when he returned and make sure he was well treated. Raikin knew OSWALD was an operation but his anti-Communist beliefs will never allow him to reveal this.
Spas T. Raikin referred OSWALD to the Welfare Department. Jane Ruscoll, the Administrator of the Office of Special Services of the Welfare Department in 1962, was contacted in August 1993. She stated:
We had a program called ‘The Repatriation Program.’ His case was atypical in the sense that I recall he was the only one coming from Russia.
If the FBI met people like OSWALD, they did not tell us. I had no suspicions about him – the State Department had cleared him. OSWALD
was limited and politically naive – he went to Russia in 1959 and declared he did not want be an American. There had to be some naivety about that.
He was not a stupid person. OSWALD, through his reading, had sort of taken hold of an idealism, which in many respects communism did represent. The Soviets were going to have this wonderful society. And having come from a life of some poverty he looked at it as sort of a Garden of Eden. Although his aspirations have an admirable quality to them, he was well meaning, well intentioned, he was fooled bypropaganda. I had no impression that he was connected with the CIA.
One thing that bears it out is he wouldn’t have come back without funds and having such difficulty and having his brother ask him for funds [$200]
which he hated, if he was a big CIA apparatchik. He was intensely upset.
He told me his brother was mortgaging his house. He didn’t want to put him in that position. There’s an inconsistency there. He wouldn’t have impressed people as being desirable as an agent.
OSWALD told me that he had this girlfriend he was in love with before he met Marina. She appears in some pictures, she’s a taller woman than Marina. He was very smitten with her. She left him, and he attempted suicide. When he wanted to get out of the country and was having difficulty, he told me that he had found that by trying to go to the head of agencies you were more apt to get an approval to an exception of policy.
One of the things he said was, ‘I’m going to commit suicide.’ Now since he had made the previous attempt they did sort of put credence into that threat. He said that helped get him out of the country. OSWALD wanted me to call the State Department. I spoke to a woman in the New York State Department of Welfare who subsequently called the State Department. She asked, ‘Could we have an exception to policy and pay his transportation and in effect tell the brother he did not have to pay?’ The answer came back, no.
OSWALD told me that when he was at one of Marine camps, General Edwin Walker came to speak and all the men turned out for the talk.
OSWALD, who didn’t like the reputation that preceded Walker, stayed inside reading one of his books. This was something he told me. I’m probably the only one that hasn’t talked before.
42 Franklin Street
New York, 13, N.Y.
Investigation reflected that Michael Isaacs, aka Martin Isaacs and Michel Izikzs worked for the Special Services at the Department of Welfare, located at above. HEW
(Travelers Aid) assisted Oswald and wife by transporting them to the above address from the ship Massdam and for a loan continuing their travel to Dallas. [CIA 1294-481]
MEMORANDUM FOR: SPECIAL AGENT IN CHARGE
NEW YORK FIELD OFFICE
SUBJECT: ISAACS, fnu #261 752 F SD/4
1. Subject is of CI interest to GOLIATH.
2. As Office of Origin, you are requested to conduct a credit check on subject for additional biographic information available on him. The only information that GOLIATH
has on Subject is the following: Mr. Isaacs, Special Services, 42 Franklin Street, New York 13, New York. Phone WORTH-4-6363.
3. Subject should not be alerted that investigation is being conducted. Government interest may be shown in checking public and quasi-public records.
4. A deadline of January 30, 1964 has been established in this case.
Attachment Control Cards
January 20, 1964
This was strange. CIA has an interest in Issacs after the assassination “Category of Report 00-C.” – Domestic Contacts” Perhaps ANGLETON had an undocumented interest prior to the coup as he knew all of Isaacs aliases. When the CIA concluded its investigation it found Isaacs was a Jewish Hungarian immigrant, a naturalized citizen with a clear credit rating.
Jane Ruscoll stated,
“This is a mistake, he didn’t use aliases.
He was absent the day OSWALD came in. A worker in his unit spoke with him.”
OSWALD EXPECTED TO BE DEBRIEFED BY ANGLETON
In a letter to his mother, OSWALD wrote:
Well here we are in Moscow getting ready to leave for the U.S.A. I’ll be sending a telegram or otherwise informing you as to where we shall embark and so forth, everything is okay so don’t worry about us we shall be leaving from Holland by ship for the U.S. on June 4, 1962 however I except to stay over in New York for a day or so and also new Washington, D.C. for sightseeing. Love LEE.
If OSWALD had to get a loan from the American Embassy in order to return to the United States, where was the money going to come from to finance his sightseeing tour of Washington, D.C. Did OSWALD expect to be debriefed? Jane Ruscoll:
“He was away for a long enough period of time to have traveled to Washington, D.C., assuming he had the funds to do that.” [OSWALD Ltr. 5.30.62; WCE 198]
On the afternoon of June 14, 1962, the OSWALD’S flew from New York to Dallas.
Robert Edward Oswald welcomed OSWALD, Marina Oswald and their daughter at his Fort Worth home.